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Gene Review

Slc52a2  -  solute carrier protein 52, member 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2010003P03Rik, D15Ertd747e, GPCR42, Gpr172b, PAR2, ...
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Disease relevance of Gpr172b

  • Here we show that the KSHV GPCR enhances the expression of VEGF by stimulating the activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, which activates transcription from a hypoxia response element within the 5'-flanking region of the VEGF promoter [1].
  • The expression of PAR-2 in synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients was compared [2].
  • Our data thus provide ultimate evidence for role of PAR2 in colonic hypersensitivity, and suggest involvement of the bradykinin-B2 pathway [3].

High impact information on Gpr172b


Chemical compound and disease context of Gpr172b


Biological context of Gpr172b

  • We hypothesized here that PAR-2 plays a central role in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis by mediating signaling from serine proteases (SP) in the stratum corneum (SC) [7].
  • These data show for the first time the role of G protein receptor phosphorylation and internalization per se in the regulatory function of an endocrine system controlled by a GPCR [8].
  • Thirdly, topical applications of PAR-2 agonist peptide, SLIGRL, delay permeability barrier recovery and inhibit LB secretion, while, conversely, PAR-2 knockout mice display accelerated barrier recovery kinetics and enhanced LB secretion, paralleled by increased LR formation and caveolin-1 expression [7].
  • Vasoconstriction elicited by angiotensin II (Ang II) or phenylephrine (PE), G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, but not that elicited by arachidonic acid or KCl, was greater in eNOS KO mice [9].
  • Ca(2+) imaging in WT acinar cells and beta-galactosidase staining in PAR-2KO mice, in which the beta-galactosidase gene (LacZ) was incorporated into the disrupted gene, revealed a nonubiquitous, sporadic distribution of PAR-2 in the SMG [10].

Anatomical context of Gpr172b

  • We undertook this study to explore the importance of PAR-2 activation in 4 murine models of arthritis and to analyze the expression of PAR-2 in human arthritic synovium [2].
  • Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation [5].
  • In order to investigate the dynamic mechanisms associated with GPCR signaling, the intracellular translocation of a green fluorescent protein-tagged PKD was analyzed by real-time visualization in fibroblasts and epithelial cells stimulated with bombesin, a GPCR agonist [11].
  • It is the most abundant GPCR activated by LPA found in the small intestinal intraepithelial CD8+ cytotoxic T cells [12].
  • These results indicate that PAR-2 present in the salivary glands mediates Ca(2+)-dependent fluid secretion, demonstrating potential usefulness of PAR-2 as a target for dry mouth treatment [10].

Associations of Gpr172b with chemical compounds

  • Protein kinase D (PKD)/protein kinase C (PKC) mu is a serine/threonine protein kinase that can be activated by physiological stimuli like growth factors, antigen-receptor engagement and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that requires PKC activity [11].
  • Furthermore, compared with the secretion in WT mice, PAR-2-mediated salivary secretion and Ca(2+) response were enhanced in mice lacking M(3) or both M(1) and M(3) mAChRs, in which mAChR-stimulated secretion and Ca(2+) response in acinar cells were severely impaired [10].
  • PAR2 agonists caused delayed facilitation of sensitivity to capsaicin [3].
  • PAR-2 Deficient CD4+ T Cells Exhibit Downregulation of IL-4 and Upregulation of IFN-gamma after Antigen Challenge in Mice [13].


  1. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus G protein-coupled receptor up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression and secretion through mitogen-activated protein kinase and p38 pathways acting on hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. Sodhi, A., Montaner, S., Patel, V., Zohar, M., Bais, C., Mesri, E.A., Gutkind, J.S. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of protease-activated receptor 2 in murine models of arthritis. Busso, N., Frasnelli, M., Feifel, R., Cenni, B., Steinhoff, M., Hamilton, J., So, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Colonic hyperalgesia triggered by proteinase-activated receptor-2 in mice: Involvement of endogenous bradykinin. Kawabata, A., Kawao, N., Kitano, T., Matsunami, M., Satoh, R., Ishiki, T., Masuko, T., Kanke, T., Saito, N. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and proinflammatory role of proteinase-activated receptor 2 in rheumatoid synovium: ex vivo studies using a novel proteinase-activated receptor 2 antagonist. Kelso, E.B., Ferrell, W.R., Lockhart, J.C., Elias-Jones, I., Hembrough, T., Dunning, L., Gracie, J.A., McInnes, I.B. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. P-Rex1 regulates neutrophil function. Welch, H.C., Condliffe, A.M., Milne, L.J., Ferguson, G.J., Hill, K., Webb, L.M., Okkenhaug, K., Coadwell, W.J., Andrews, S.R., Thelen, M., Jones, G.E., Hawkins, P.T., Stephens, L.R. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Protease-activated receptor-2 signaling triggers dendritic cell development. Fields, R.C., Schoenecker, J.G., Hart, J.P., Hoffman, M.R., Pizzo, S.V., Lawson, J.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Serine protease signaling of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. Hachem, J.P., Houben, E., Crumrine, D., Man, M.Q., Schurer, N., Roelandt, T., Choi, E.H., Uchida, Y., Brown, B.E., Feingold, K.R., Elias, P.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Impact of Impaired Receptor Internalization on Calcium Homeostasis in Knock-In Mice Expressing a Phosphorylation-Deficient Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-Related Peptide Receptor. Bounoutas, G.S., Tawfeek, H., Fröhlich, L.F., Chung, U.I., Abou-Samra, A.B. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of the RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway in renal vascular reactivity in endothelial nitric oxide synthase null mice. Williams, J., Bogwu, J., Oyekan, A. J. Hypertens. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Up-Regulated PAR-2-Mediated Salivary Secretion in Mice Deficient in Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes. Nishiyama, T., Nakamura, T., Obara, K., Inoue, H., Mishima, K., Matsumoto, N., Matsui, M., Manabe, T., Mikoshiba, K., Saito, I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Rapid protein kinase D translocation in response to G protein-coupled receptor activation. Dependence on protein kinase C. Rey, O., Young, S.H., Cantrell, D., Rozengurt, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Lysophosphatidic acid binds to and activates GPR92, a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in gastrointestinal lymphocytes. Kotarsky, K., Boketoft, A., Bristulf, J., Nilsson, N.E., Norberg, A., Hansson, S., Owman, C., Sillard, R., Leeb-Lundberg, L.M., Olde, B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. PAR-2 Deficient CD4+ T Cells Exhibit Downregulation of IL-4 and Upregulation of IFN-gamma after Antigen Challenge in Mice. Shichijo, M., Kondo, S., Ishimori, M., Watanabe, S., Helin, H., Yamasaki, T., Stevens, M.E., Gantner, F., Bacon, K.B. Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology. (2006) [Pubmed]
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