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Gene Review

Rac2  -  RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI323801, AI452260, Protein EN-7, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2, p21-Rac2
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Disease relevance of Rac2


High impact information on Rac2

  • We used a complementary DNA subtraction method, representational display analysis, to show that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 is expressed selectively in murine TH1 cells [4].
  • Role of the guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 in T helper 1 cell differentiation [4].
  • Recent studies of leukocytes derived from Rac1- and Rac2-knockout mice have shown that these highly homologous GTPases have unique biological roles [5].
  • These results suggest that Rac2 plays a unique role in multiple cellular functions and describe an essential role for Rac2 in growth factor-dependent survival and expression of BAD/Bcl-XL [6].
  • Mast cells generated from Rac2-deficient (-/-) mice demonstrated defective actin-based functions, including adhesion, migration, and degranulation [6].

Biological context of Rac2


Anatomical context of Rac2

  • Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro [7].
  • By contrast, Rac2 null neutrophils can orient toward the chemoattractant source but are unable to migrate efficiently [11].
  • In contrast, mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from the Rac2 knockout mice utilize Rac1 for migration via alphavbeta3/alphavbeta5 and alpha4beta1 [12].
  • Rac2-deficient murine macrophages have selective defects in superoxide production and phagocytosis of opsonized particles [13].
  • These results provide genetic evidence that although Rac2 is a relatively minor isoform in murine macrophages, it plays a nonoverlapping role with Rac1 to regulate host defense functions in this phagocyte lineage [13].

Associations of Rac2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Rac2


Enzymatic interactions of Rac2


Regulatory relationships of Rac2


Other interactions of Rac2

  • Furthermore, we link hyperactivation of the Ras-class IA-PI3K-Rac2 pathway to increased Nf1+/- mast cell migration [20].
  • Although not required for translocation of p47phox and p67phox, Rac2 is necessary for optimal activity of the assembled oxidase complex, an effect that can be replaced by exogenous AA, which may act directly or via an exogenous AA-induced mediator [21].
  • The Rac2 mutants V36A, F37A, and N39A all bind to both Pak1 and p67(phox), yet are unable to rescue superoxide production and chemotaxis when expressed in Rac2-/- PMN [15].
  • Bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from mice treated with polyIC to induce interferon lack detectable Rac1, and there is no compensatory increase in Rac2 or Cdc42 expression [22].
  • Thus, we have defined specific sequences in Rac that specify subcellular localization and determine the specificity of Rac2 in neutrophil chemotaxis and superoxide generation [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rac2


  1. The Rac2 guanosine triphosphatase regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor responses and chemotaxis and is required for establishment of B-1a and marginal zone B lymphocytes. Croker, B.A., Tarlinton, D.M., Cluse, L.A., Tuxen, A.J., Light, A., Yang, F.C., Williams, D.A., Roberts, A.W. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Rac2D57N, a dominant inhibitory Rac2 mutant that inhibits p38 kinase signaling and prevents surface ruffling in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Abell, A.N., DeCathelineau, A.M., Weed, S.A., Ambruso, D.R., Riches, D.W., Johnson, G.L. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. RAC2 GTPase deficiency and myeloid cell dysfunction in human and mouse. Gu, Y., Williams, D.A. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 in T helper 1 cell differentiation. Li, B., Yu, H., Zheng, W., Voll, R., Na, S., Roberts, A.W., Williams, D.A., Davis, R.J., Ghosh, S., Flavell, R.A. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of innate immunity by Rho GTPases. Bokoch, G.M. Trends Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Rac2 stimulates Akt activation affecting BAD/Bcl-XL expression while mediating survival and actin function in primary mast cells. Yang, F.C., Kapur, R., King, A.J., Tao, W., Kim, C., Borneo, J., Breese, R., Marshall, M., Dinauer, M.C., Williams, D.A. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro. Ingram, D.A., Hiatt, K., King, A.J., Fisher, L., Shivakumar, R., Derstine, C., Wenning, M.J., Diaz, B., Travers, J.B., Hood, A., Marshall, M., Williams, D.A., Clapp, D.W. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Isoform-specific membrane targeting mechanism of Rac during Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis: positive charge-dependent and independent targeting mechanism of Rac to the phagosome. Ueyama, T., Eto, M., Kami, K., Tatsuno, T., Kobayashi, T., Shirai, Y., Lennartz, M.R., Takeya, R., Sumimoto, H., Saito, N. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of Rac2 via the C terminus and aspartic acid 150 specifies superoxide generation, actin polarity and chemotaxis in neutrophils. Filippi, M.D., Harris, C.E., Meller, J., Gu, Y., Zheng, Y., Williams, D.A. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Rac2, a hematopoiesis-specific Rho GTPase, specifically regulates mast cell protease gene expression in bone marrow-derived mast cells. Gu, Y., Byrne, M.C., Paranavitana, N.C., Aronow, B., Siefring, J.E., D'Souza, M., Horton, H.F., Quilliam, L.A., Williams, D.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Rac1 is the small GTPase responsible for regulating the neutrophil chemotaxis compass. Sun, C.X., Downey, G.P., Zhu, F., Koh, A.L., Thang, H., Glogauer, M. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Rac2 specificity in macrophage integrin signaling: potential role for Syk kinase. Pradip, D., Peng, X., Durden, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Rac2-deficient murine macrophages have selective defects in superoxide production and phagocytosis of opsonized particles. Yamauchi, A., Kim, C., Li, S., Marchal, C.C., Towe, J., Atkinson, S.J., Dinauer, M.C. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. P-Rex1 is a primary Rac2 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mouse neutrophils. Dong, X., Mo, Z., Bokoch, G., Guo, C., Li, Z., Wu, D. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Rac2 regulates neutrophil chemotaxis, superoxide production, and myeloid colony formation through multiple distinct effector pathways. Carstanjen, D., Yamauchi, A., Koornneef, A., Zang, H., Filippi, M.D., Harris, C., Towe, J., Atkinson, S., Zheng, Y., Dinauer, M.C., Williams, D.A. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification and functional characterization of the murine Rac2 gene promoter. Ou, X., Pollock, J., Dinauer, M.C., Gharehbaghi-Schnell, E., Skalnik, D.G. DNA Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Downstream components of RhoA required for signal pathway of superoxide formation during phagocytosis of serum opsonized zymosans in macrophages. Kim, J.S., Kim, J.G., Jeon, C.Y., Won, H.Y., Moon, M.Y., Seo, J.Y., Kim, J.I., Kim, J., Lee, J.Y., Choi, S.Y., Park, J., Yoon Park, J.H., Ha, K.S., Kim, P.H., Park, J.B. Exp. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Rac2 is critical for neutrophil primary granule exocytosis. Abdel-Latif, D., Steward, M., Macdonald, D.L., Francis, G.A., Dinauer, M.C., Lacy, P. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. CXCL9 inhibits eosinophil responses by a CCR3- and Rac2-dependent mechanism. Fulkerson, P.C., Zhu, H., Williams, D.A., Zimmermann, N., Rothenberg, M.E. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells secrete a potent migratory stimulus for Nf1+/- mast cells. Yang, F.C., Ingram, D.A., Chen, S., Hingtgen, C.M., Ratner, N., Monk, K.R., Clegg, T., White, H., Mead, L., Wenning, M.J., Williams, D.A., Kapur, R., Atkinson, S.J., Clapp, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Impaired NADPH oxidase activity in Rac2-deficient murine neutrophils does not result from defective translocation of p47phox and p67phox and can be rescued by exogenous arachidonic acid. Kim, C., Dinauer, M.C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Rac1-deficient macrophages exhibit defects in cell spreading and membrane ruffling but not migration. Wells, C.M., Walmsley, M., Ooi, S., Tybulewicz, V., Ridley, A.J. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Rac GTPases regulate the morphology and deformability of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Kalfa, T.A., Pushkaran, S., Mohandas, N., Hartwig, J.H., Fowler, V.M., Johnson, J.F., Joiner, C.H., Williams, D.A., Zheng, Y. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Specific association of nitric oxide synthase-2 with Rac isoforms in activated murine macrophages. Kuncewicz, T., Balakrishnan, P., Snuggs, M.B., Kone, B.C. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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