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Gene Review

BoLA  -  major histocompatibility complex, class I, A

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of BoLA

  • In addition to the practical significance of these findings, the association between BoLA and BLV provides a unique model to study host resistance to retrovirus infection in a non-inbred species [1].
  • Disease association studies have demonstrated that BoLA alleles affect the subclinical progression of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection [1].
  • We have analysed the influence of bovine MHC (BoLA) polymorphism on the immune response and degree of protection induced by peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle [2].
  • This investigation was to determine whether immune responsiveness differed between these cows and whether differences were related to expression of class I BoLA antigens, which might explain the increased resistance or susceptibility to S. aureus mastitis [3].
  • BoLA antigens are associated with increased frequency of persistent lymphocytosis in bovine leukaemia virus infected cattle and with increased incidence of antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus [4].

High impact information on BoLA

  • This review focuses on recent advances in research on the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA), with specific reference to the genetic organization, polymorphism and function of the class II genes [1].
  • Two cDNA cloned from a Hereford cow B cell line (BL-3) have allowed the determination of the complete coding region for two class I molecules encoded by the bovine MHC (BoLA) [5].
  • The BoLA proteins show greater similarity to HLA than to H-2 molecules, correlating with the cross-reactions of W6/32 and other murine anti-HLA-A,B,C mAb with BoLA molecules [5].
  • Evidence for the expression of three different BoLA-class II molecules on the bovine BL-3 cell line: determination of a non-DR non-DQ gene product [6].
  • Accepted nomenclature convention suggests that BoLA-DIB should therefore be renamed BoLA-DYB [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of BoLA

  • The BoLA W8.1 allele was negatively associated with the presence of antibodies to the major BLV envelope glycoprotein, BLV-gp51 (corrected P less than 0.001, relative risk = 0.31) [8].

Biological context of BoLA

  • Full-length cDNAs encoding the DQB genes expressed by three BoLA class II haplotypes (DH8A, DH15B, and DH24A) were amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced [9].
  • To test for involvement of the bovine major histocompatibility system (BoLA) the MLR tests were done using full-sibling cattle families which had been generated through the use of embryo transfer systems [10].
  • Cytotoxic cells of bovine origin were generated in primary MLC using stimulator cells of BoLA w8/w11 phenotype [11].
  • Sequence diversity present within the 5' upstream regions of BoLA class I genes [12].
  • Since the tests, were done using full-sibling combinations, this result suggests genetic linkage between the MLR controlling antigens and the BoLA complex [10].

Anatomical context of BoLA


Associations of BoLA with chemical compounds

  • Lymphoblastoid cell lines, infected and transformed in vitro by a Moroccan stock of Theileria annulata, infected and immunized susceptible taurine cattle, at cell doses of 10(8), 10(6), 10(4) and 10(2), regardless of whether the recipients were BoLA matched or mismatched to the donor cell line [18].

Physical interactions of BoLA

  • In these animals we studied several highly polymorphic genetic systems such as haemoglobin, albumin, the BoLA Complex (class I and II) and the gamma S crystallin gene [19].

Other interactions of BoLA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BoLA


  1. Comparative organization and function of the major histocompatibility complex of domesticated cattle. Lewin, H.A., Russell, G.C., Glass, E.J. Immunol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of bovine DRB3 alleles with immune response to FMDV peptides and protection against viral challenge. García-Briones, M.M., Russell, G.C., Oliver, R.A., Tami, C., Taboga, O., Carrillo, E., Palma, E.L., Sobrino, F., Glass, E.J. Vaccine (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differences in bovine lymphocyte antigen associations between immune responsiveness and risk of disease following intramammary infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Mallard, B.A., Leslie, K.E., Dekkers, J.C., Hedge, R., Bauman, M., Stear, M.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. BoLA antigens are associated with increased frequency of persistent lymphocytosis in bovine leukaemia virus infected cattle and with increased incidence of antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus. Stear, M.J., Dimmock, C.K., Newman, M.J., Nicholas, F.W. Anim. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning of bovine class I MHC cDNA. Ennis, P.D., Jackson, A.P., Parham, P. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Evidence for the expression of three different BoLA-class II molecules on the bovine BL-3 cell line: determination of a non-DR non-DQ gene product. Ababou, A., Goyeneche, J., Davis, W.C., Lévy, D. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The DY genes of the cattle MHC: expression and comparative analysis of an unusual class II MHC gene pair. Ballingall, K.T., Ellis, S.A., MacHugh, N.D., Archibald, S.D., McKeever, D.J. Immunogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Association between BoLA and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a herd of Holstein-Friesian cows. Lewin, H.A., Wu, M.C., Stewart, J.A., Nolan, T.J. Immunogenetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequence duplication at the 3' end of BoLA-DQB genes suggests multiple allelic lineages. Russell, G.C. Immunogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Mixed lymphocyte reactivity in cattle. Newman, M.J., Campion, J.E., Stear, M.J. Tissue Antigens (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Bovine alloreactive cytotoxic cells generated in vitro: target specificity in relation to BoLA phenotype. Teale, A.J., Morrison, W.I., Goddeeris, B.M., Groocock, C.M., Stagg, D.A., Spooner, R.L. Immunology (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence diversity present within the 5' upstream regions of BoLA class I genes. Barker, N., Young, J.R., Morrison, W.I., Ellis, S.A. Immunogenetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLa): close linkage of the genes controlling serologically defined antigens and mixed lymphocyte reactivity. Usinger, W.R., Curie-Cohen, M., Benforado, K., Pringnitz, D., Rowe, R., Splitter, G.A., Stone, W.H. Immunogenetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity in Theileria annulata infection of cattle with evidence for BoLA restriction. Preston, P.M., Brown, C.G., Spooner, R.L. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes on the fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Fogg, M.H., Parsons, K.R., Thomas, L.H., Taylor, G. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Polymorphism at the bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha locus and assignment to BTA 23. Agaba, M., Kemp, S.J., Barendse, W., Teale, A.J. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Serological relationships among antigens of the BoLA and the bovine M blood group systems. Hines, H.C., Ross, M.J. Anim. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of MHC compatibility between parasite-infected cell line and recipient in immunization against tropical theileriosis. Innes, E.A., Ouhelli, H., Oliver, R.A., Simpson, S.P., Brown, C.G., Spooner, R.L. Parasite Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. An attempt to identify genetic markers of resistance or susceptibility to dermatophilosis in the zebu Brahman population of Martinique. Maillard, J.C., Palin, C., Trap, I., Bensaid, A. Revue d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of naturally processed and presented peptides associated with bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class II DR molecules. Sharif, S., Mallard, B.A., Wilkie, B.N. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds. Kantanen, J., Olsaker, I., Holm, L.E., Lien, S., Vilkki, J., Brusgaard, K., Eythorsdottir, E., Danell, B., Adalsteinsson, S. J. Hered. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Mapping of bovine prolactin and rhodopsin genes in hybrid somatic cells. Hallerman, E.M., Theilmann, J.L., Beckmann, J.S., Soller, M., Womack, J.E. Anim. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of diverse BoLA DQA3 genes consistent with non-allelic sequences. Ballingall, K.T., Marasa, B.S., Luyai, A., McKeever, D.J. Anim. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. MHC class II restricted recognition of FMDV peptides by bovine T cells. Glass, E.J., Oliver, R.A., Collen, T., Doel, T.R., Dimarchi, R., Spooner, R.L. Immunology (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA recognize monomorphic and polymorphic epitopes on BoLA. Chardon, P., Kalil, J., Leveziel, H., Colombani, J., Vaiman, M. Tissue Antigens (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. One-dimensional isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting of bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class I molecules and correlation with class I serology. Viuff, B., Ostergård, H., Aasted, B., Kristensen, B. Anim. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. DNA typing for BoLA class I using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). Ellis, S.A., Staines, K.A., Stear, M.J., Hensen, E.J., Morrison, W.I. Eur. J. Immunogenet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Preliminary report on BoLA polymorphism in Guernsey cattle. Nonnecke, B.J., Lewin, H.A., Timms, L.L. J. Dairy Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
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