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Gene Review

TGM3  -  transglutaminase 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E, TG(E), TGE, TGase E, TGase-3, ...
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Disease relevance of TGM3


High impact information on TGM3


Biological context of TGM3

  • In the course of isolation of genomic clones for the TGM3 gene, we also found clones encoding the widely expressed tissue or TGase2 enzyme, perhaps due to high degrees of sequence homology [7]
  • In this paper we show that it is encoded by a gene (TGM3) of 42.8 kbp containing 13 exons [7]
  • Assignment of the human transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) and transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) genes to chromosome 20q11.2 [8]
  • Strongly negative lod scores prompted a search for linkage to two other epidermally expressed transglutaminases, transglutaminase-2 and transglutaminase-3, on chromosome 20 [9]
  • Two of the three heat shock proteins were identified by mass spectrometric sequencing to be the calcium-calmodulin homologue transglutaminase-3 (78 kDa) and a recently cloned oesophageal-specific gene called C1orf10, which encodes a 53-kDa putative calcium binding protein we have named squamous epithelial heat shock protein 53 (SEP53) [10]

Anatomical context of TGM3


Associations of TGM3 with chemical compounds

  • Transglutaminase-3 (TGase-3) is an enzyme with the ability to catalyze the irreversible cross-linking of peptide-bound glutamine residues either with peptide-bound lysines or with primary amines [14]
  • Transglutaminase-3 (TGM3) can modify different proteins, like small proline rich proteins 1-3, invlucrin, loricrin, huntingtins etc. serving as glutamyl or lysyl donors in the crosslinking reactions. A list of identified substrates is included in TRANSDAB   database [15]
  • Complete cleavage of DNA was observed by complexes containing TGE and ME at 400-600 moles excess of thiol ligand to hemin, those containing Cys, CysMe, and CysEt at 50-200 moles excess, and those containing MPG, GSH, penta- and nona-peptides at 5-20 moles excess [16]
  • Mutation of the critical aspartic acid residue in the phosphorylation domain (DKTGTIT) blocked copper-induced redistribution of ATP7B from the TGN, whereas mutation of the phosphatase domain [TGE (Thr-Gly-Glu)] trapped ATP7B at cytosolic vesicular compartments [17]

Other interactions of TGM3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGM3




  1. Functional studies of a novel oncogene TGM3 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Liu, W., Yu, Z.C., Cao, W.F., Ding, F., Liu, Z.H. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of transglutaminase 5 in normal and pathologic human epidermis. Candi, E., Oddi, S., Paradisi, A., Terrinoni, A., Ranalli, M., Teofoli, P., Citro, G., Scarpato, S., Puddu, P., Melino, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Influence of calcium on the proteolytic degradation of the calmodulin-like skin protein (calmodulin-like protein 5) in psoriatic epidermis. Méhul, B., Bernard, D., Brouard, M., Delattre, C., Schmidt, R. Exp. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Structural basis for the coordinated regulation of transglutaminase 3 by guanine nucleotides and calcium/magnesium. Ahvazi, B., Boeshans, K.M., Idler, W., Baxa, U., Steinert, P.M., Rastinejad, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and cloning of a new calmodulin-like protein from human epidermis. Méhul, B., Bernard, D., Simonetti, L., Bernard, M.A., Schmidt, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The proximal promoter of the human transglutaminase 3 gene. Stratified squamous epithelial-specific expression in cultured cells is mediated by binding of Sp1 and ets transcription factors to a proximal promoter element. Lee, J.H., Jang, S.I., Yang, J.M., Markova, N.G., Steinert, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure and organization of the human transglutaminase 3 gene: evolutionary relationship to the transglutaminase family. Kim, I.G., Lee, S.C., Lee, J.H., Yang, J.M., Chung, S.I., Steinert, P.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Assignment of the human transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) and transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) genes to chromosome 20q11.2. Wang, M., Kim, I.G., Steinert, P.M., McBride, O.W. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Congenital recessive ichthyosis unlinked to loci for epidermal transglutaminases. Bale, S.J., Russell, L.J., Lee, M.L., Compton, J.G., DiGiovanna, J.J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. The human oesophageal squamous epithelium exhibits a novel type of heat shock protein response. Yagui-Beltran, A., Craig, A.L., Lawrie, L., Thompson, D., Pospisilova, S., Johnston, D., Kernohan, N., Hopwood, D., Dillon, J.F., Hupp, T.R. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Differentiation characteristics of cholesteatoma epithelium determined by expression of transglutaminase isoenzymes. Chang, C.S., Jun, B.H., Song, K.Y., Kim, I.G. J. Korean Med. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Transglutaminase activity and transglutaminase mRNA transcripts in gerbil brain ischemia. Ientile, R., Caccamo, D., Marciano, M.C., Currò, M., Mannucci, C., Campisi, A., Calapai, G. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Clonal heterogeneity of the sensitivity of human colon carcinoma cell lines to TGE beta isoforms. Zhou, G.H., Sechrist, G.L., Brattain, M.G., Mulder, K.M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Transglutaminase-3, an esophageal cancer-related gene. Chen, B.S., Wang, M.R., Xu, X., Cai, Y., Xu, Z.X., Han, Y.L., Wu, M. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Transdab wiki: the interactive transglutaminase substrate database on web 2.0 surface. Csosz, E., Meskó, B., Fésüs, L. Amino. Acids. (2009) [Pubmed]
  16. DNA strand scission by hemin-thiolate complexes as models of cytochrome P-450. Sakurai, H., Shibuya, M., Shimizu, C., Akimoto, S., Maeda, M., Kawasaki, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Copper binding to the N-terminal metal-binding sites or the CPC motif is not essential for copper-induced trafficking of the human Wilson protein (ATP7B). Cater, M.A., La Fontaine, S., Mercer, J.F. Biochem. J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential expression of the keratin-4, -13, -14, -17 and transglutaminase 3 genes during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma from leukoplakia. Ohkura, S., Kondoh, N., Hada, A., Arai, M., Yamazaki, Y., Sindoh, M., Takahashi, M., Matsumoto, I., Yamamoto, M. Oral Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of breast cancer specific gene-1 (BCSG-1/gamma-synuclein) is associated with tumour grade but not with clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. Martin, T.A., Gomez, K., Watkins, G., Douglas-Jones, A., Mansel, R.E., Jiang, W.G. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of Ets-binding sequence of human transglutaminase 3 gene promoter. Kim, C.D., Seo, E.Y., Sung, Y.H., Kim, H.W., Seo, Y.J., Park, J.K., Lee, J.H. Exp. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The human papillomavirus type 11 E1--E4 protein is a transglutaminase 3 substrate and induces abnormalities of the cornified cell envelope. Brown, D.R., Kitchin, D., Qadadri, B., Neptune, N., Batteiger, T., Ermel, A. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human transglutaminase 3 from zymogen to active form. Kim, H.C., Nemes, Z., Idler, W.W., Hyde, C.C., Steinert, P.M., Ahvazi, B. J. Struct. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparison of 99mTc tetrofosmin gated SPECT measurements of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with MRI over a wide range of values. Thorley, P.J., Plein, S., Bloomer, T.N., Ridgway, J.P., Sivananthan, U.M. Nuclear medicine communications. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Relatedness of rabbit coronavirus to other coronaviruses. Small, J.D., Woods, R.D. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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