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Gene Review

SNCG  -  synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BCSG1, Breast cancer-specific gene 1 protein, Gamma-synuclein, PERSYN, PRSN, ...
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Disease relevance of SNCG


Psychiatry related information on SNCG


High impact information on SNCG


Chemical compound and disease context of SNCG


Biological context of SNCG


Anatomical context of SNCG

  • SNCG mRNA was not expressed in the 10 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissues, although several CpGs were demethylated [3].
  • SNCG demethylation was more frequent in primary gastric cancers positive for lymph node metastasis (51%; 26 of 51) than in cancers without lymph node involvement (26%; 14 of 54; P < 0.05), and also more common in stage II-IV (48%; 27 of 56) than in stage I (27%; 13 of 49) cancers (P < 0.05) [3].
  • On late steps of mitosis gamma-synuclein is not found in the centrosomes, and redistributes to the midbody in telophase [16].
  • Under stress conditions a translocation of gamma-synuclein from the perinuclear area to the nucleus occurs exhibiting nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. gamma-Synuclein overexpression reduces neurite outgrowth in a greater extent then alpha-synuclein overexpression [16].
  • Using transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated a role of SNCG in induction of highly proliferative pregnancy-like phenotype of mammary epithelial cells and branching morphology [17].

Associations of SNCG with chemical compounds

  • The SNCG-mediated stimulation of ER-alpha transcriptional activity is consistent with its stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis in response to estrogen [1].
  • SNCG expression and methylation status were examined by reverse transcription-PCR and bisulfite-single-strand conformational polymorphism followed by direct sequencing, respectively [3].
  • SNCG participated in the heat shock protein-based multiprotein chaperone complex for steroid receptor signaling [17].
  • alpha-, beta- and gamma-synuclein are highly homologous proteins that are found predominantly in neurons [18].
  • Utilizing human hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 as an in vitro model, we demonstrate that hepatic carcinogens aflatoxin B1 and N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) are strong inducers of SNCG expression [19].

Physical interactions of SNCG

  • Here, we demonstrated a chaperone activity of SNCG in the heat-shock protein (Hsp)-based multiprotein chaperone complex for stimulation of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha signaling [1].

Regulatory relationships of SNCG


Other interactions of SNCG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SNCG


  1. Gamma synuclein, a novel heat-shock protein-associated chaperone, stimulates ligand-dependent estrogen receptor alpha signaling and mammary tumorigenesis. Jiang, Y., Liu, Y.E., Goldberg, I.D., Shi, Y.E. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypomethylation of the synuclein gamma gene CpG island promotes its aberrant expression in breast carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma. Gupta, A., Godwin, A.K., Vanderveer, L., Lu, A., Liu, J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Demethylation of the synuclein gamma gene CpG island in primary gastric cancers and gastric cancer cell lines. Yanagawa, N., Tamura, G., Honda, T., Endoh, M., Nishizuka, S., Motoyama, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Stage-specific expression of breast cancer-specific gene gamma-synuclein. Wu, K., Weng, Z., Tao, Q., Lin, G., Wu, X., Qian, H., Zhang, Y., Ding, X., Jiang, Y., Shi, Y.E. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Axon pathology in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia hippocampus contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein. Galvin, J.E., Uryu, K., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a breast cancer-specific gene, BCSG1, by direct differential cDNA sequencing. Ji, H., Liu, Y.E., Jia, T., Wang, M., Liu, J., Xiao, G., Joseph, B.K., Rosen, C., Shi, Y.E. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. The SR protein SC35 is responsible for aberrant splicing of the E1alpha pyruvate dehydrogenase mRNA in a case of mental retardation with lactic acidosis. Gabut, M., Miné, M., Marsac, C., Brivet, M., Tazi, J., Soret, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Alternative splicing regulation impacts heart development. Cooper, T.A. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Inactivation of the SR protein splicing factor ASF/SF2 results in genomic instability. Li, X., Manley, J.L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The SR protein SRp38 represses splicing in M phase cells. Shin, C., Manley, J.L. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of adenovirus alternative RNA splicing by dephosphorylation of SR proteins. Kanopka, A., Mühlemann, O., Petersen-Mahrt, S., Estmer, C., Ohrmalm, C., Akusjärvi, G. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of synuclein-gamma expression increases the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment. Zhou, Y., Inaba, S., Liu, J. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Breast cancer-specific gene 1 interacts with the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1. Gupta, A., Inaba, S., Wong, O.K., Fang, G., Liu, J. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Search for novel proteins involved in the development of chemoresistance in colorectal cancer and fibrosarcoma cells in vitro using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and microsequencing. Sinha, P., Hütter, G., Köttgen, E., Dietel, M., Schadendorf, D., Lage, H. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling by gamma synuclein. Jiang, Y., Liu, Y.E., Lu, A., Gupta, A., Goldberg, I.D., Liu, J., Shi, Y.E. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. gamma-synuclein has a dynamic intracellular localization. Surgucheva, I., McMahon, B., Surguchov, A. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Chaperoning of estrogen receptor and induction of mammary gland proliferation by neuronal protein synuclein gamma. Liu, Y.E., Pu, W., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Dackour, R., Shi, Y.E. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in glial tumors and medulloblastomas. Fung, K.M., Rorke, L.B., Giasson, B., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. Acta Neuropathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Abnormal activation of the synuclein-gamma gene in hepatocellular carcinomas by epigenetic alteration. Zhao, W., Liu, H., Liu, W., Wu, Y., Chen, W., Jiang, B., Zhou, Y., Xue, R., Luo, C., Wang, L., Jiang, J.D., Liu, J. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Gamma-synuclein promotes cancer cell survival and inhibits stress- and chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis by modulating MAPK pathways. Pan, Z.Z., Bruening, W., Giasson, B.I., Lee, V.M., Godwin, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Gamma synuclein: subcellular localization in neuronal and non-neuronal cells and effect on signal transduction. Surguchov, A., Palazzo, R.E., Surgucheva, I. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulatory mechanisms for abnormal expression of the human breast cancer specific gene 1 in breast cancer cells. Lu, A., Li, Q., Liu, J. Sci. China, C, Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Diagnostic potential in bladder cancer of a panel of tumor markers (calreticulin, gamma -synuclein, and catechol-o-methyltransferase) identified by proteomic analysis. Iwaki, H., Kageyama, S., Isono, T., Wakabayashi, Y., Okada, Y., Yoshimura, K., Terai, A., Arai, Y., Iwamura, H., Kawakita, M., Yoshiki, T. Cancer Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. beta-Synuclein reduces proteasomal inhibition by alpha-synuclein but not gamma-synuclein. Snyder, H., Mensah, K., Hsu, C., Hashimoto, M., Surgucheva, I.G., Festoff, B., Surguchov, A., Masliah, E., Matouschek, A., Wolozin, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Synuclein-gamma targeting peptide inhibitor that enhances sensitivity of breast cancer cells to antimicrotubule drugs. Singh, V.K., Zhou, Y., Marsh, J.A., Uversky, V.N., Forman-Kay, J.D., Liu, J., Jia, Z. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
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