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Gene Review

CALCB  -  calcitonin-related polypeptide beta

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta-CGRP, Beta-type CGRP, CALC2, CGRP-II, CGRP2, ...
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Disease relevance of CALCB


High impact information on CALCB

  • In conclusion, CGRP II, unlike CGRP I, inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans [5].
  • However, CGRP II and calcitonin inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated acid responses by 20% and 28%, respectively (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01), whereas basal acid output was only reduced with calcitonin (p less than 0.05) [5].
  • The inhibitory effects of CGRP II and calcitonin are not due to increased gastric alkaline secretion or to somatostatin release, as neither peptide stimulated gastric bicarbonate secretion or induced an increase in circulating somatostatin [5].
  • Thus, among the three CGRP8-37-insensitive receptors, CTR2/RAMP1 is most sensitive to the two linear analogs, suggesting that it could be classified as a CGRP2 receptor [6].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned cDNA from this cell line confirmed the production of CGRP-II mRNA [7].

Biological context of CALCB


Anatomical context of CALCB

  • In a human medullary thyroid carcinoma (TT) cell line, expression of the calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP-I) gene (CALC-I or alpha) at the level of mRNA and of encoded peptides is higher than that of the closely related CGRP-II gene (CALC-II or beta) [8].
  • These are distinct CGRP2-like and amylin receptors on guinea-pig vas deferens [13].
  • In the present study, human CGRP I and II exerted positive inotropic effects on isolated human right auricles and relaxed small arteries from human skeletal muscle precontracted with norepinephrine (EC50 for CGRP I 0.59 nM and for CGRP II 0.37 nM) [14].
  • CGRP-II caused a monophasic increase in the IOP and disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier, but no increase in the cAMP content occurred [15].
  • [Pro14]-h-alpha-CGRP, predictably, has significantly lower helical content and is a 20-fold less potent agonist on coronary artery, known to contain CGRP-1 receptor subtypes, and an antagonist on pancreatic acini, known to contain CGRP-2 receptor subtypes [16].

Associations of CALCB with chemical compounds

  • In response to 1 mM dibutyryl cAMP ((Bu)2cAMP), mature CGRP-II mRNA and intact cellular CGRP-II were raised 65- and 10-fold, respectively, at 72 h [8].
  • In addition to human CGRPI, human CGRPII and salmon CT stimulated the adenylate cyclase activity [17].
  • Plasma CGRP II, substance P and VIP-like immunoreactivity levels showed no significant differences among patients in the three different groups of arthritis [1].
  • The fall in IAS tension caused by CGRP II (human) was not modified by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, beta adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin [18].
  • Two amino acid differences were detected at position 1, with Gly in rabbit CGRP instead of Ala in human CGRP-II, and at position 35, with Glu instead of Lys, respectively [19].

Regulatory relationships of CALCB

  • We conclude that, in addition to the previously characterized direct smooth muscle relaxant action via CGRP1 receptors (Maggi et al. Regulatory Peptides 61, 27-36, 1996), CGRP also induces a remarkable potentiation of excitatory neurotransmission to the circular muscle of the guinea-pig colon via CGRP2 receptors [20].

Other interactions of CALCB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CALCB


  1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide II, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in plasma and synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory joint disease. Hernanz, A., De Miguel, E., Romera, N., Perez-Ayala, C., Gijon, J., Arnalich, F. Br. J. Rheumatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Improved cardiac performance with human calcitonin gene related peptide in patients with congestive heart failure. Gennari, C., Nami, R., Agnusdei, D., Fischer, J.A. Cardiovasc. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cys2,7EtalphaCGRP is a potent agonist for CGRP1 receptors in SK-N-MC cells. Nodin, C., Vauquelin, G., von Mentzer, B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-, neurotensin-, substance P-, gastrin-releasing peptide-, calcitonin-, calcitonin gene related peptide-, and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities in human parathyroid glands. Weber, C.J., O'Dorisio, T.M., Howe, B., D'Agati, V., Ward, L., Russell, J., Feind, C.R. Surgery (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II and calcitonin: distinct effects on gastric acid secretion in humans. Beglinger, C., Born, W., Hildebrand, P., Ensinck, J.W., Burkhardt, F., Fischer, J.A., Gyr, K. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity-modifying proteins. Kuwasako, K., Cao, Y.N., Nagoshi, Y., Tsuruda, T., Kitamura, K., Eto, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of the second calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide gene in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Höppener, J.W., Steenbergh, P.H., Slebos, R.J., Visser, A., Lips, C.J., Jansz, H.S., Bechet, J.M., Lenoir, G.M., Born, W., Haller-Brem, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of calcitonin/CGRP-I and CGRP-II gene expression by dibutyryl cAMP in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma (TT) cell line. Wind, J.C., Born, W., Rijnsent, A., Boer, P., Fischer, J.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification and characterization of human Inscuteable gene in silico. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Antagonism of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by human CGRP-(8-37): role of CGRP in internal anal sphincter relaxation. Chakder, S., Rattan, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. PCR amplification of CGRP II mRNA. Variable expression in tumoral and non-tumoral human thyroid. Lasmoles, F., Minvielle, S., Cohen, R., Guliana, J.M., Delehaye, M.C., Segond, N., Calmettes, C., Milhaud, G., Moukhtar, M.S. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of binding sites for the calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II in man. Henke, H., Sigrist, S., Lang, W., Schneider, J., Fischer, J.A. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide and amylin on guinea-pig ileum and vas deferens. Tomlinson, A.E., Poyner, D.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cardiovascular effects of calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II in man. Franco-Cereceda, A., Gennari, C., Nami, R., Agnusdei, D., Pernow, J., Lundberg, J.M., Fischer, J.A. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Intraocular and cardiovascular effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-I and -II in the rabbit. Krootila, K., Uusitalo, H., Palkama, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure-activity studies on position 14 of human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide. Li, J., Matsuura, J.E., Waugh, D.J., Adrian, T.E., Abel, P.W., Manning, M.C., Smith, D.D. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of calcitonin gene related peptide on the adenylate cyclase activity in abalone gill membranes. Fouchereau-Peron, M. Regul. Pept. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. [Tyr0]-calcitonin gene-related peptide 28-37 (rat) as a putative antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide responses on opossum internal anal sphincter smooth muscle. Chakder, S., Rattan, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Structural characterization of calcitonin gene-related peptide purified from rabbit intestine. Eysselein, V.E., Reeve, J.R., Sternini, C., Cominelli, F., Davis, W.M., Davis, M.T., Lee, T.D., Ho, F.J., Ridout, D., Shively, J.E. Peptides (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. CGRP potentiates excitatory transmission to the circular muscle of guinea-pig colon. Maggi, C.A., Giuliani, S., Santicioli, P. Regul. Pept. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. From wild wolf to domestic dog: gene expression changes in the brain. Saetre, P., Lindberg, J., Leonard, J.A., Olsson, K., Pettersson, U., Ellegren, H., Bergström, T.F., Vilà, C., Jazin, E. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Distinct hemodynamic and gastric effects of human CGRP I and II in man. Beglinger, C., Born, W., Münch, R., Kurtz, A., Gutzwiller, J.P., Jäger, K., Fischer, J.A. Peptides (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning and expression of equine calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide-I, and calcitonin gene-related peptide-II. Toribio, R.E., Kohn, C.W., Leone, G.W., Capen, C.C., Rosol, T.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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