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Gene Review

BECN1  -  beclin 1, autophagy related

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ATG6, Beclin-1, Coiled-coil myosin-like BCL2-interacting protein, GT197, Protein GT197, ...
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Disease relevance of BECN1


High impact information on BECN1


Biological context of BECN1


Anatomical context of BECN1

  • In this study, we show that wild-type Beclin 1 colocalizes with both intracytoplasmic organelles and nuclei in COS7 monkey kidney and MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells [1].
  • Th2 cells become more resistant to growth factor-withdrawal cell death when autophagy is blocked using either chemical inhibitors 3-methyladenine, or by RNA interference knockdown of beclin 1 and Atg7 [11].
  • Moreover, silencing of Beclin 1 resulted in enhanced chondrocyte death [12].
  • The increased presence of macroautophagic vesicles was monitored using a specific immunohistochemical marker for autophagosomes, anti-LC3-II immunoreactivity, as well as the immunohistochemical signal for beclin-1, and was associated with increased co-localization with mitochondria in the cells exposed to diabetic neuropathic sera [13].
  • In addition, levels and/or activation of mTOR and Beclin were not affected by CD deficiency, suggesting that the accumulation of autophagosomes is not due to an increased synthesis of autophagosomes but rather from an inhibition of autophagosome recycling, due most likely to a compromise in lysosome function [14].

Associations of BECN1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of BECN1


Other interactions of BECN1

  • Inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export with leptomycin B or mutation of the nuclear export signal motif of Beclin 1 results in predominantly nuclear localization [1].
  • We identified 4 genes, the expression of three (Beclin 1, RbAp48 and Pir51) were increased and one (aldolase b) was decreased in liver tumor tissues [17].
  • The genes encoding Beclin 1, RbAp48, Pir51 and aldolase b are first reported that may be related with hepatocarcinoma [17].
  • The recent implication of tumor suppressors like Beclin 1, DAP-kinase and PTEN in autophagic pathways indicates a causative role for autophagy deficiencies in cancer formation [18].
  • This finding adds a new player to the emerging picture of the autophagy network, under-scoring the importance of the coordinated activity between Bcl-2 and UVRAG in the regulation of Beclin 1-PI3KC3-mediated autophagy and tumor cell control [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BECN1


  1. Beclin 1 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that is required for its autophagy and tumor suppressor function. Liang, X.H., Yu, J., Brown, K., Levine, B. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Autophagy is involved in T cell death after binding of HIV-1 envelope proteins to CXCR4. Espert, L., Denizot, M., Grimaldi, M., Robert-Hebmann, V., Gay, B., Varbanov, M., Codogno, P., Biard-Piechaczyk, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Beclin 1 augmented cis-diamminedichloroplatinum induced apoptosis via enhancing caspase-9 activity. Furuya, D., Tsuji, N., Yagihashi, A., Watanabe, N. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and genomic organization of beclin 1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 17q21. Aita, V.M., Liang, X.H., Murty, V.V., Pincus, D.L., Yu, W., Cayanis, E., Kalachikov, S., Gilliam, T.C., Levine, B. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential mechanisms of conjunctival cell death induction by ultraviolet irradiation and benzalkonium chloride. Buron, N., Micheau, O., Cathelin, S., Lafontaine, P.O., Creuzot-Garcher, C., Solary, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1. Liang, X.H., Jackson, S., Seaman, M., Brown, K., Kempkes, B., Hibshoosh, H., Levine, B. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Control of macroautophagy by calcium, calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-beta, and Bcl-2. Høyer-Hansen, M., Bastholm, L., Szyniarowski, P., Campanella, M., Szabadkai, G., Farkas, T., Bianchi, K., Fehrenbacher, N., Elling, F., Rizzuto, R., Mathiasen, I.S., Jäättelä, M. Mol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of chromatin immunoprecipitation to clone novel E2F target promoters. Weinmann, A.S., Bartley, S.M., Zhang, T., Zhang, M.Q., Farnham, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional specificity of the mammalian Beclin-Vps34 PI 3-kinase complex in macroautophagy versus endocytosis and lysosomal enzyme trafficking. Zeng, X., Overmeyer, J.H., Maltese, W.A. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Ceramide-mediated macroautophagy involves inhibition of protein kinase B and up-regulation of beclin 1. Scarlatti, F., Bauvy, C., Ventruti, A., Sala, G., Cluzeaud, F., Vandewalle, A., Ghidoni, R., Codogno, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Autophagy Is Induced in CD4+ T Cells and Important for the Growth Factor-Withdrawal Cell Death. Li, C., Capan, E., Zhao, Y., Zhao, J., Stolz, D., Watkins, S.C., Jin, S., Lu, B. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. HIF-1 Regulation of Chondrocyte Apoptosis: Induction of the Autophagic Pathway. Bohensky, J., Shapiro, I.M., Leshinsky, S., Terkhorn, S.P., Adams, C.S., Srinivas, V. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Sera from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy Induce Autophagy and Colocalization with Mitochondria in SY5Y Cells. Towns, R., Kabeya, Y., Yoshimori, T., Guo, C., Shangguan, Y., Hong, S., Kaplan, M., Klionsky, D.J., Wiley, J.W. Autophagy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in cathepsin d-deficient brain. Walls, K.C., Klocke, B.J., Saftig, P., Shibata, M., Uchiyama, Y., Roth, K.A., Shacka, J.J. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Partial Beclin 1 silencing aggravates doxorubicin- and Fas-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Daniel, F., Legrand, A., Pessayre, D., Vadrot, N., Descatoire, V., Bernuau, D. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. UVRAG: A New Player in Autophagy and Tumor Cell Growth. Liang, C., Feng, P., Ku, B., Oh, B.H., Jung, J.U. Autophagy (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Genes encoding Pir51, Beclin 1, RbAp48 and aldolase b are up or down-regulated in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Song, H., Xia, S.L., Liao, C., Li, Y.L., Wang, Y.F., Li, T.P., Zhao, M.J. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Autophagy as a cell death and tumor suppressor mechanism. Gozuacik, D., Kimchi, A. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Beclin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex functions at the trans-Golgi network. Kihara, A., Kabeya, Y., Ohsumi, Y., Yoshimori, T. EMBO Rep. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Protein and mRNA expression of autophagy gene Beclin 1 in human brain tumours. Miracco, C., Cosci, E., Oliveri, G., Luzi, P., Pacenti, L., Monciatti, I., Mannucci, S., De Nisi, M.C., Toscano, M., Malagnino, V., Falzarano, S.M., Pirtoli, L., Tosi, P. Int. J. Oncol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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