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Gene Review

BUD31  -  BUD31 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cwc14, EDG-2, EDG2, G10, Protein BUD31 homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of BUD31

  • We report here that DR-positive fibroblasts present tetanus toxoid (TT) to autologous TT-specific monoclonal helper T cells vigorously depleted of monocytes by passage over Sephadex G10 columns followed by treatment with the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) OKM1 and Leu M1 plus complement [1].
  • Monoclonal antibody (G10) to a common antigen of human squamous cell carcinoma: binding of the antibody to the H type 2 blood group determinant [2].
  • The non-SCC lines that bound G10 were UM-PAd-1, 2 transitional cell carcinoma lines (T24 and RT4), and 1 melanoma line (SK-MEL-22) [2].
  • We have addressed this issue in chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd), whose (+) hammerhead has an extra A (A10) between the conserved A9 and the quasi-conserved G10 [3].
  • The structure is characterized by O4'-endo geometry for all the sugar rings (expect G10), and the other torsion angles belong to the B-DNA families [4].

High impact information on BUD31

  • Endothelial cells and certain glandular cells were also positive for G10 binding [2].
  • G10 agglutinated human red blood cells of all blood groups except those from individuals of the Bombay group (Oh) who lack the H blood group determinant [2].
  • When tested against cultures derived from normal skin or mucosa, G10 was reactive with the epitheloid squamous cells but not with the fibroblasts in each culture [2].
  • In subsequent tests against cultured cell lines, G10 gave positive reactions with 30 of 33 SCC lines but only 4 of 29 non-SCC lines [2].
  • The antigen defined by antibody G10 was stable to fixation with Formalin, and its distribution in tissue sections was examined with the use of immunoperoxidase assays [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of BUD31

  • The methyl groups on O6 of G4 and G10 have C5-C6-O6-O6Me torsion angles of 73 degrees and 56 degrees, respectively, and protrude onto the major groove surface [5].
  • Peripheral blood lymphocytes purified by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation were passed over a G10 Sephadex column and then activated in vitro in the presence of 0.003% staphylococcus Cowan A, 2.8 x 10(-6) M indomethacin and appropriate concentrations of tetanus toxoid antigen [6].

Biological context of BUD31

  • CONCLUSION: IL10.G12 and G10 microsatellite alleles show a strong protective effect against the development of ReA in Finnish subjects [7].
  • RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the promoter alleles G12 (allele frequency 0.206 versus 0.033; corrected P < 0.001, odds ratio 0.14) and G10 (0.183 versus 0.092; P < 0.05, odds ratio 0.44) in the ReA group compared with the HLA-B27-positive controls [7].
  • Moreover, in the haplotype analysis with G2319A- and VNTR-polymorphisms, a positive gene dose efffect on the risk with the A10 allele (P = 0.044, linearity tendency test) and a negative gene dose effect with the G10 allele (P = 0.010, linearity tendency test) for alcoholism were significantly detected [8].
  • The base G10 of this triple in turn forms a second similar unorthodox base triple, G10*(G3*C18), with the adjacent base-pair G3-C18 of the duplex, thus G10 is involved in a double triple [9].
  • The G10-3 fraction (less than 1000 mol wt) was obtained by sequential gel filtration on Sephadex G50 and G10 of a steroid-free extract of a pool of human FFl collected from various-sized follicles at different stages of the menstrual cycle [10].

Anatomical context of BUD31

  • Characterization of edg-2, a human homologue of the Xenopus maternal transcript G10 from endothelial cells [11].
  • When blood mononuclear cells from postoperative patients were depleted of monocytes by adherence to a serum-coated plastic dish and a Sephadex G10 column and then cultured for 24 hours, they showed an increase in NK activity [12].
  • In similar tests against sections of fixed normal tissues, G10 stained the superficial squamous cells of the epidermis and the basal and suprabasal layers of mucosal squamous epithelial cells from the esophagus [2].
  • Mixed lymphocyte culture responses were depressed in 4 of 8 subjects, but became normal in 2 of these after filtration through a Sephadex G10 column [13].
  • NBT+ cells co-distributed with B cells on Percoll density gradients and were enriched among purified B cells obtained by SRBC rosetting twice and Sephadex G10 adherence (47.8 +/- 15.2% NBT+ cells among 90.5 +/- 5.5% B cells, 4.8 +/- 5.1% T cells, 1.2 +/- 0.77% monocytes/macrophages, and 0.73 +/- 0.6% granulocytes, n = 10) [14].

Associations of BUD31 with chemical compounds

  • Pentagastrin, G6, G7, G8, G9, G10, G13, G17, and G34 were studied [15].
  • However, deletion of the 2-amino group at G10 (replacement with inosine) or deletion of either of the 2'-hydroxyls at G10 or G13 (replacement with 2'-deoxyguanosine) resulted in ribozymes with a drastic decrease in cleavage efficiency [16].
  • The modified ribozymes were chemically synthesized with the substitution of a single 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, inosine, or purine riboside for residues G10, A11, G13, or A14 [16].
  • The Z-DNA structure of Cu(II)-soaked CGCGTG crystal revealed that the Cu(II) ion is bis-coordinated to N7 position of G10 and #G12 (# denotes a symmetry-related position) bases with a trigonal bipyramid geometry, suggesting a possible N7-Cu-N7 crosslinking mechanism [17].
  • At 120 min blood glucose levels were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 4.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/L, respectively, for G10 and G1 (P less than 0.05) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BUD31

  • After free catecholamines in urine samples were purified on alumina followed by Sephadex G10, a reliable and simultaneous quantification of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine was achieved by using high-performance liquid-chromatography with electrochemical detection [19].
  • We tested the in vivo activity of novispirin G10 in rats with an infected, partial-thickness burn that covered 20% of their total body surface area [20].
  • A new seminested PCR typing assay has been extended to identify the important veterinary rotavirus serotypes G5, G6, G10, and G11, as well as the rare human serotype G8 [21].
  • G-typing PCR initially classified PP-1 as a G10 rotavirus but sequence analysis revealed 92 to 96% identity of the PP-1 VP7 with porcine, simian, and human G3 rotaviruses [22].
  • Accessory cells were removed by passage of mononuclear cells through a Sephadex G10 column followed by separation of cells bearing antigens defined by the monoclonal antibodies OKM1 and UCHM1 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or panning [23].


  1. Human dermal fibroblasts present tetanus toxoid antigen to antigen-specific T cell clones. Umetsu, D.T., Pober, J.S., Jabara, H.H., Fiers, W., Yunis, E.J., Burakoff, S.J., Reiss, C.S., Geha, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Monoclonal antibody (G10) to a common antigen of human squamous cell carcinoma: binding of the antibody to the H type 2 blood group determinant. Kimmel, K.A., Carey, T.E., Judd, W.J., McClatchey, K.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. An extra nucleotide in the consensus catalytic core of a viroid hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the design of more efficient ribozymes. De la Peña, M., Flores, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Solution structure of the conserved segment of the Myb cognate DNA sequence by 2D NMR, spectral simulation, restrained energy minimization, and distance geometry calculations. Radha, P.K., Madan, A., Nibedita, R., Hosur, R.V. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal and molecular structure of a DNA duplex containing the carcinogenic lesion O6-methylguanine. Ginell, S.L., Kuzmich, S., Jones, R.A., Berman, H.M. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Successful in vitro antigen-dependent activation of 24-hour-old peripheral blood lymphocytes. Owen, J.A., Muirhead, K., Jensen, C., Jonak, Z.L. J. Immunol. Methods (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. IL10.G microsatellites mark promoter haplotypes associated with protection against the development of reactive arthritis in Finnish patients. Kaluza, W., Leirisalo-Repo, M., Märker-Hermann, E., Westman, P., Reuss, E., Hug, R., Mastrovic, K., Stradmann-Bellinghausen, B., Granfors, K., Galle, P.R., Höhler, T. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of a novel polymorphism of the human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and the significant association with alcoholism. Ueno, S., Nakamura, M., Mikami, M., Kondoh, K., Ishiguro, H., Arinami, T., Komiyama, T., Mitsushio, H., Sano, A., Tanabe, H. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A single 2'-hydroxyl group converts B-DNA to A-DNA. Crystal structure of the DNA-RNA chimeric decamer duplex d(CCGGC)r(G)d(CCGG) with a novel intermolecular G-C base-paired quadruplet. Ban, C., Ramakrishnan, B., Sundaralingam, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of progesterone secretion in cultured human granulosa cells by a low molecular weight fraction of human follicular fluid. Hillensjö, T., Chari, S., Nilsson, L., Hamberger, L., Daume, E., Sturm, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of edg-2, a human homologue of the Xenopus maternal transcript G10 from endothelial cells. Hla, T., Jackson, A.Q., Appleby, S.B., Maciag, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Generation of suppressor cells for natural killer activity in cancer patients after surgery. Uchida, A., Kolb, R., Micksche, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Cancer family syndrome: marker studies. Markowitz, J.F., Aiges, H.W., Cunningham-Rundles, S., Kahn, E., Teichberg, S., Fisher, S.E., Daum, F. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Superoxide-dependent nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and expression of cytochrome b-245 components by human tonsillar B lymphocytes and B cell lines. Maly, F.E., Nakamura, M., Gauchat, J.F., Urwyler, A., Walker, C., Dahinden, C.A., Cross, A.R., Jones, O.T., de Weck, A.L. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Hepatic inactivation of gastrins of various chain lengths in dogs. Strunz, U.T., Thompson, M.R., Elashoff, J., Grossman, M.I. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Importance of specific purine amino and hydroxyl groups for efficient cleavage by a hammerhead ribozyme. Fu, D.J., McLaughlin, L.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystallographic studies of metal ion-DNA interactions: different binding modes of cobalt(II), copper(II) and barium(II) to N7 of guanines in Z-DNA and a drug-DNA complex. Gao, Y.G., Sriram, M., Wang, A.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): effect of rate of ingestion of carbohydrate and different carbohydrate preparations. Heine, R.J., Hanning, I., Morgan, L., Alberti, K.G. Diabetes Care (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of alumina, sephadex G10, and ion-exchange columns to purify samples for determination of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine. Westerink, B.H., Bosker, F.J., O'Hanlon, J.F. Clin. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Activity of novispirin G10 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in infected burns. Steinstraesser, L., Tack, B.F., Waring, A.J., Hong, T., Boo, L.M., Fan, M.H., Remick, D.I., Su, G.L., Lehrer, R.I., Wang, S.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of bovine and porcine rotavirus G types by PCR. Gouvea, V., Santos, N., Timenetsky, M.d.o. .C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Rotavirus cross-species pathogenicity: molecular characterization of a bovine rotavirus pathogenic for pigs. El-Attar, L., Dhaliwal, W., Howard, C.R., Bridger, J.C. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Accessory cell and HLA compatibility requirements for the generation of specific in-vitro antibody responses to influenza virus by human blood lymphocytes. Mitchell, D.M., Beverley, P.C., Boyle, D.G., Winger, L.A., Callard, R.E. Immunology (1983) [Pubmed]
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