The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Birth Order

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Birth Order


High impact information on Birth Order

  • We demonstrate that projection neurons are prespecified by lineage and birth order to form synapses with specific incoming ORN axons, and therefore to carry specific olfactory information [6].
  • We propose models to suggest how birth order, HLH-2 accumulation, and transcription of lag-2 may be linked during the AC/VU decision [7].
  • We were able to identify a group of women at increased risk of ER+ breast cancers (high-risk group) on the basis of baseline as well as reproductive and hormonal characteristics (height, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and oophorectomy) [8].
  • Parity, total number of children, age at first birth, and OC use were not associated with an increased risk of RA in this cohort [9].
  • A further note on testing for a birth order effect in ankylosing spondylitis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Birth Order

  • The possible role of environmental factors in the aetiology of these conditions was investigated by studying birth order, symptoms of vitamin A deficiency (night blindness), drug use and maternal illness in pregnancy, rubella antibodies and exposure to agricultural chemicals [11].

Biological context of Birth Order


Associations of Birth Order with chemical compounds

  • At 57 and 69 wk, lower retinol and RBP correlated with higher birth order [16].
  • Multivariate models adjusting for race, sex, birth order, and maternal height, body mass, education, and age indicated that children of smokers were 0.3, 0.3, and 0.8 cm shorter in the lowest, middle, and highest tertile of serum cotinine, respectively, and children of ETS-exposed women were 0.5 cm taller than those of nonsmokers [17].
  • After controlling for age, body mass index (weight/height2), and alcohol use, we observed inverse associations between estrone sulfate and parity (r = -0.15, P = 0.03) and between percent bioavailable estradiol and age at first birth (r = -0.17, P = 0.02) [18].
  • Plasma progesterone concentrations and corpus luteum volume increased during pregnancy to reach a maximum about 6 days before the first births [19].
  • The results suggest that (1) the brain-pituitary-adrenal axis of this altricial bird becomes fully functional after hatching and (2) birth order within broods influences corticosterone secretion during subsequent stages of development [20].

Gene context of Birth Order

  • The mean time between onset of RA and the first birth was 23.6 (SD 3.8) years [21].
  • Direct associations with parental diagnosis depend on birth order of the ASP members despite the comparable mean impairment scores for older and younger ADHD siblings [22].
  • The children were diagnosed as having SLE in reverse birth order at ages 8, 9, and 11 years [23].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results restrict the range of possible theories of the birth order phenomenon to those that can explain not only why older brothers increase the probability of homosexuality in later-born males but also why older sisters neither enhance this effect nor counteract it [24].
  • In a multivariate analysis statistically significant predictors of IDDM in the offspring were the sex of the parent, the year of birth and the birth order of the offspring [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Birth Order


  1. Variation at the insulin gene VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) polymorphism and early growth: studies in a large Finnish birth cohort. Bennett, A.J., Sovio, U., Ruokonen, A., Martikainen, H., Pouta, A., Taponen, S., Hartikainen, A.L., King, V.J., Elliott, P., Järvelin, M.R., McCarthy, M.I. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Parity, other reproductive factors, and risk of pancreatic cancer mortality in a large cohort of U.S. women (United States). Teras, L.R., Patel, A.V., Rodriguez, C., Thun, M.J., Calle, E.E. Cancer Causes Control (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Postmenopausal weight status, body composition and body fat distribution in relation to parameters of menstrual and reproductive history. Kirchengast, S., Gruber, D., Sator, M., Huber, J. Maturitas. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple birth and cerebral palsy in Europe: a multicenter study. Topp, M., Huusom, L.D., Langhoff-Roos, J., Delhumeau, C., Hutton, J.L., Dolk, H. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Breast cancer. Veronesi, U., Boyle, P., Goldhirsch, A., Orecchia, R., Viale, G. Lancet (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Target neuron prespecification in the olfactory map of Drosophila. Jefferis, G.S., Marin, E.C., Stocker, R.F., Luo, L. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Post-transcriptional regulation of the E/Daughterless ortholog HLH-2, negative feedback, and birth order bias during the AC/VU decision in C. elegans. Karp, X., Greenwald, I. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Italian randomized trial among women with hysterectomy: tamoxifen and hormone-dependent breast cancer in high-risk women. Veronesi, U., Maisonneuve, P., Rotmensz, N., Costa, A., Sacchini, V., Travaglini, R., D'Aiuto, G., Lovison, F., Gucciardo, G., Muraca, M.G., Pizzichetta, M.A., Conforti, S., Decensi, A., Robertson, C., Boyle, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses' Health Study. Karlson, E.W., Mandl, L.A., Hankinson, S.E., Grodstein, F. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A further note on testing for a birth order effect in ankylosing spondylitis. James, W.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Environmental risk factors in congenital malformations of the eye. Hornby, S.J., Ward, S.J., Gilbert, C.E., Dandona, L., Foster, A., Jones, R.B. Annals of tropical paediatrics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis among first-born children. Baudoin, P., van der Horst-Bruinsma, I.E., Dekker-Saeys, A.J., Weinreich, S., Bezemer, P.D., Dijkmans, B.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. High prevalence of muscular ventricular septal defect in neonates. Roguin, N., Du, Z.D., Barak, M., Nasser, N., Hershkowitz, S., Milgram, E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-term plasma lipid changes associated with a first birth: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Gunderson, E.P., Lewis, C.E., Murtaugh, M.A., Quesenberry, C.P., Smith West, D., Sidney, S. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Blanchard, R. Hormones and behavior. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Vitamin A status of preterm infants during infancy. Peeples, J.M., Carlson, S.E., Werkman, S.H., Cooke, R.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Passive and active maternal smoking during pregnancy, as measured by serum cotinine, and postnatal smoke exposure. I. Effects on physical growth at age 5 years. Eskenazi, B., Bergmann, J.J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Reproductive factors and family history of breast cancer in relation to plasma estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study (United States). Hankinson, S.E., Colditz, G.A., Hunter, D.J., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C., Stampfer, M.J., Longcope, C., Speizer, F.E. Cancer Causes Control (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Variations in gestation length in a colony of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from year to year. Racey, P.A., Swift, S.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental changes and among-sibling variation of corticosterone levels in an altricial avian species. Schwabl, H. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Oral contraception, parity, breast feeding, and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Jorgensen, C., Picot, M.C., Bologna, C., Sany, J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship of family environment and parental psychiatric diagnosis to impairment in ADHD. Pressman, L.J., Loo, S.K., Carpenter, E.M., Asarnow, J.R., Lynn, D., McCracken, J.T., McGough, J.J., Lubke, G.H., Yang, M.H., Smalley, S.L. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Triplets with systemic lupus erythematosus. Kamat, S.S., Pepmueller, P.H., Moore, T.L. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Homosexuality in men and number of older brothers. Blanchard, R., Bogaert, A.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence for importance of gender and birth cohort for risk of IDDM in offspring of IDDM parents. Tuomilehto, J., Podar, T., Tuomilehto-Wolf, E., Virtala, E. Diabetologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Outcome of first delivery after 2nd trimester two-stage induced abortion. A controlled historical cohort study. Meirik, O., Nygren, K.G. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Multiple sclerosis and birth order: a longitudinal cohort study. Sadovnick, A.D., Yee, I.M., Ebers, G.C. Lancet neurology. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities