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Chemical Compound Review

Keoxifene     [6-hydroxy-2-(4- hydroxyphenyl)benzothiophe...

Synonyms: Eviden, Raloxifeno, Raxeto, raloxifene, Raloxifenum, ...
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Disease relevance of Keoxifene


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Chemical compound and disease context of Keoxifene


Biological context of Keoxifene


Anatomical context of Keoxifene


Associations of Keoxifene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Keoxifene


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Keoxifene


  1. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. Delmas, P.D., Bjarnason, N.H., Mitlak, B.H., Ravoux, A.C., Shah, A.S., Huster, W.J., Draper, M., Christiansen, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Tamoxifen, raloxifene findings unlikely to encourage genetic screening for breast cancer. Dove, A. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. IV. Meta-analysis of raloxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cranney, A., Tugwell, P., Zytaruk, N., Robinson, V., Weaver, B., Adachi, J., Wells, G., Shea, B., Guyatt, G. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. Cummings, S.R., Eckert, S., Krueger, K.A., Grady, D., Powles, T.J., Cauley, J.A., Norton, L., Nickelsen, T., Bjarnason, N.H., Morrow, M., Lippman, M.E., Black, D., Glusman, J.E., Costa, A., Jordan, V.C. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Raloxifene reduces spinal fractures postmenopausally. MacReady, N. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Breast cancer risk reduction: strategies for women at increased risk. Chlebowski, R.T. Annu. Rev. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Raloxifene exposure enhances brain activation during memory performance in healthy elderly males; its possible relevance to behavior. Goekoop, R., Duschek, E.J., Knol, D.L., Barkhof, F., Netelenbos, C., Scheltens, P., Rombouts, S.A. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of raloxifene on prevention of dementia and cognitive impairment in older women: the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) randomized trial. Yaffe, K., Krueger, K., Cummings, S.R., Blackwell, T., Henderson, V.W., Sarkar, S., Ensrud, K., Grady, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective estrogen receptor modulator: safety assessment of effects on cognitive function and mood in postmenopausal women. Nickelsen, T., Lufkin, E.G., Riggs, B.L., Cox, D.A., Crook, T.H. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene. Yaffe, K., Krueger, K., Sarkar, S., Grady, D., Barrett-Connor, E., Cox, D.A., Nickelsen, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of an estrogen response element activated by metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and raloxifene. Yang, N.N., Venugopalan, M., Hardikar, S., Glasebrook, A. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. Ettinger, B., Black, D.M., Mitlak, B.H., Knickerbocker, R.K., Nickelsen, T., Genant, H.K., Christiansen, C., Delmas, P.D., Zanchetta, J.R., Stakkestad, J., Glüer, C.C., Krueger, K., Cohen, F.J., Eckert, S., Ensrud, K.E., Avioli, L.V., Lips, P., Cummings, S.R. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Serum estradiol level and risk of breast cancer during treatment with raloxifene. Cummings, S.R., Duong, T., Kenyon, E., Cauley, J.A., Whitehead, M., Krueger, K.A. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Digitized mammography: a clinical trial of postmenopausal women randomly assigned to receive raloxifene, estrogen, or placebo. Freedman, M., San Martin, J., O'Gorman, J., Eckert, S., Lippman, M.E., Lo, S.C., Walls, E.L., Zeng, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical effects of raloxifene hydrochloride in women. Khovidhunkit, W., Shoback, D.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of the selective estrogen receptor modulator arzoxifene (LY353381) with tamoxifen on tumor growth and biomarker expression in an MCF-7 human breast cancer xenograft model. Detre, S., Riddler, S., Salter, J., A'Hern, R., Dowsett, M., Johnston, S.R. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Blockade of the stimulatory effect of estrogens, OH-tamoxifen, OH-toremifene, droloxifene, and raloxifene on alkaline phosphatase activity by the antiestrogen EM-800 in human endometrial adenocarcinoma Ishikawa cells. Simard, J., Sanchez, R., Poirier, D., Gauthier, S., Singh, S.M., Merand, Y., Belanger, A., Labrie, C., Labrie, F. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Raloxifene, a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist, induces apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Kim, I.Y., Kim, B.C., Seong, d.o. .H., Lee, D.K., Seo, J.M., Hong, Y.J., Kim, H.T., Morton, R.A., Kim, S.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. The interaction of raloxifene and the active metabolite of the antiestrogen EM-800 (SC 5705) with the human estrogen receptor. Schafer, J.I., Liu, H., Tonetti, D.A., Jordan, V.C. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, induces apoptosis in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP through an androgen-independent pathway. Kim, I.Y., Seong, d.o. .H., Kim, B.C., Lee, D.K., Remaley, A.T., Leach, F., Morton, R.A., Kim, S.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Raloxifene (LY139481 HCI) prevents bone loss and reduces serum cholesterol without causing uterine hypertrophy in ovariectomized rats. Black, L.J., Sato, M., Rowley, E.R., Magee, D.E., Bekele, A., Williams, D.C., Cullinan, G.J., Bendele, R., Kauffman, R.F., Bensch, W.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Raloxifene, tamoxifen, nafoxidine, or estrogen effects on reproductive and nonreproductive tissues in ovariectomized rats. Sato, M., Rippy, M.K., Bryant, H.U. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation by the raloxifene analog LY117018 is differentially mediated by Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in vascular endothelial cells. Hisamoto, K., Ohmichi, M., Kanda, Y., Adachi, K., Nishio, Y., Hayakawa, J., Mabuchi, S., Takahashi, K., Tasaka, K., Miyamoto, Y., Taniguchi, N., Murata, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Antiresorptive treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: comparison of study designs and outcomes in large clinical trials with fracture as an endpoint. Marcus, R., Wong, M., Heath, H., Stock, J.L. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis in the rat: combined use of raloxifene and 9-cis-retinoic acid. Anzano, M.A., Peer, C.W., Smith, J.M., Mullen, L.T., Shrader, M.W., Logsdon, D.L., Driver, C.L., Brown, C.C., Roberts, A.B., Sporn, M.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular determinants of tissue selectivity in estrogen receptor modulators. Grese, T.A., Sluka, J.P., Bryant, H.U., Cullinan, G.J., Glasebrook, A.L., Jones, C.D., Matsumoto, K., Palkowitz, A.D., Sato, M., Termine, J.D., Winter, M.A., Yang, N.N., Dodge, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Selective estrogen receptor modulators 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene impact the stability and function of SRC-1 and SRC-3 coactivator proteins. Lonard, D.M., Tsai, S.Y., O'Malley, B.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of raloxifene as a potent inhibitor of experimental postmenopausal polyarthritis and osteoporosis. Jochems, C., Islander, U., Kallkopf, A., Lagerquist, M., Ohlsson, C., Carlsten, H. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential regulation of native estrogen receptor-regulatory elements by estradiol, tamoxifen, and raloxifene. Levy, N., Tatomer, D., Herber, C.B., Zhao, X., Tang, H., Sargeant, T., Ball, L.J., Summers, J., Speed, T.P., Leitman, D.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  30. Raloxifene increases proliferation and up-regulates telomerase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Doshida, M., Ohmichi, M., Tsutsumi, S., Kawagoe, J., Takahashi, T., Du, B., Mori-Abe, A., Ohta, T., Saitoh-Sekiguchi, M., Takahashi, K., Kurachi, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Basic guide to the mechanisms of antiestrogen action. MacGregor, J.I., Jordan, V.C. Pharmacol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of raloxifene on serum lipids and coagulation factors in healthy postmenopausal women. Walsh, B.W., Kuller, L.H., Wild, R.A., Paul, S., Farmer, M., Lawrence, J.B., Shah, A.S., Anderson, P.W. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Indicators of lifetime estrogen exposure: effect on breast cancer incidence and interaction with raloxifene therapy in the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation study participants. Lippman, M.E., Krueger, K.A., Eckert, S., Sashegyi, A., Walls, E.L., Jamal, S., Cauley, J.A., Cummings, S.R. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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