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Chemical Compound Review

COP-1     (2S)-2-amino-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)propanoic...

Synonyms: Copaxone, Copolymer-1, Copolymer 1, AC1MIXQC, SureCN9076, ...
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Disease relevance of COP-1


Psychiatry related information on COP-1


High impact information on COP-1


Chemical compound and disease context of COP-1


Biological context of COP-1


Anatomical context of COP-1


Associations of COP-1 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of COP-1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of COP-1


  1. Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) induces degenerate, Th2-polarized immune responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. Duda, P.W., Schmied, M.C., Cook, S.L., Krieger, J.I., Hafler, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Amelioration of proteolipid protein 139-151-induced encephalomyelitis in SJL mice by modified amino acid copolymers and their mechanisms. Stern, J.N., Illés, Z., Reddy, J., Keskin, D.B., Sheu, E., Fridkis-Hareli, M., Nishimura, H., Brosnan, C.F., Santambrogio, L., Kuchroo, V.K., Strominger, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The immunomodulator glatiramer acetate augments the expression of neurotrophic factors in brains of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. Aharoni, R., Eilam, R., Domev, H., Labunskay, G., Sela, M., Arnon, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. T cell immunity to copolymer 1 confers neuroprotection on the damaged optic nerve: possible therapy for optic neuropathies. Kipnis, J., Yoles, E., Porat, Z., Cohen, A., Mor, F., Sela, M., Cohen, I.R., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Glatiramer acetate fights against Alzheimer's disease by inducing dendritic-like microglia expressing insulin-like growth factor 1. Butovsky, O., Koronyo-Hamaoui, M., Kunis, G., Ophir, E., Landa, G., Cohen, H., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Cognitive function in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Minimal changes in a 10-year clinical trial. Schwid, S.R., Goodman, A.D., Weinstein, A., McDermott, M.P., Johnson, K.P. J. Neurol. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Predictors of adherence to Copaxone therapy in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Fraser, C., Hadjimichael, O., Vollmer, T. The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction versus escalation therapy. Martinelli, V., Comi, G. Neurol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunomodulatory synergy by combination of atorvastatin and glatiramer acetate in treatment of CNS autoimmunity. Stüve, O., Youssef, S., Weber, M.S., Nessler, S., von Büdingen, H.C., Hemmer, B., Prod'homme, T., Sobel, R.A., Steinman, L., Zamvil, S.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Nasal vaccination with a proteosome-based adjuvant and glatiramer acetate clears beta-amyloid in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Frenkel, D., Maron, R., Burt, D.S., Weiner, H.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) therapy induces CD8(+) T cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. Karandikar, N.J., Crawford, M.P., Yan, X., Ratts, R.B., Brenchley, J.M., Ambrozak, D.R., Lovett-Racke, A.E., Frohman, E.M., Stastny, P., Douek, D.C., Koup, R.A., Racke, M.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Combination therapy with glatiramer acetate (copolymer-1) and a type I interferon (IFN-alpha) does not improve experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brod, S.A., Lindsey, J.W., Wolinsky, J.S. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. European/Canadian multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of glatiramer acetate on magnetic resonance imaging--measured disease activity and burden in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. European/Canadian Glatiramer Acetate Study Group. Comi, G., Filippi, M., Wolinsky, J.S. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequential maintenance treatment with glatiramer acetate after mitoxantrone is safe and can limit exposure to immunosuppression in very active, relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Ramtahal, J., Jacob, A., Das, K., Boggild, M. J. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Increase in serum levels of uric acid, an endogenous antioxidant, under treatment with glatiramer acetate for multiple sclerosis. Constantinescu, C.S., Freitag, P., Kappos, L. Mult. Scler. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis, Part 2. Becker, C.C., Gidal, B.E., Fleming, J.O. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct binding of myelin basic protein and synthetic copolymer 1 to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules on living antigen-presenting cells--specificity and promiscuity. Fridkis-Hareli, M., Teitelbaum, D., Gurevich, E., Pecht, I., Brautbar, C., Kwon, O.J., Brenner, T., Arnon, R., Sela, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Modified amino acid copolymers suppress myelin basic protein 85-99-induced encephalomyelitis in humanized mice through different effects on T cells. Illés, Z., Stern, J.N., Reddy, J., Waldner, H., Mycko, M.P., Brosnan, C.F., Ellmerich, S., Altmann, D.M., Santambrogio, L., Strominger, J.L., Kuchroo, V.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Cross-reactions and specificities of monoclonal antibodies against myelin basic protein and against the synthetic copolymer 1. Teitelbaum, D., Aharoni, R., Sela, M., Arnon, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Copolymer 1 inhibits manifestations of graft rejection. Aharoni, R., Teitelbaum, D., Arnon, R., Sela, M. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with copolymer-1 (Copaxone): implicating mechanisms of Th1 to Th2/Th3 immune-deviation. Miller, A., Shapiro, S., Gershtein, R., Kinarty, A., Rawashdeh, H., Honigman, S., Lahat, N. J. Neuroimmunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Vaccination for protection of retinal ganglion cells against death from glutamate cytotoxicity and ocular hypertension: implications for glaucoma. Schori, H., Kipnis, J., Yoles, E., WoldeMussie, E., Ruiz, G., Wheeler, L.A., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Specific Th2 cells accumulate in the central nervous system of mice protected against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by copolymer 1. Aharoni, R., Teitelbaum, D., Leitner, O., Meshorer, A., Sela, M., Arnon, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Therapeutic vaccine for acute and chronic motor neuron diseases: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Angelov, D.N., Waibel, S., Guntinas-Lichius, O., Lenzen, M., Neiss, W.F., Tomov, T.L., Yoles, E., Kipnis, J., Schori, H., Reuter, A., Ludolph, A., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Autoimmune concepts of multiple sclerosis as a basis for selective immunotherapy: from pipe dreams to (therapeutic) pipelines. Hohlfeld, R., Wekerle, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. T cell deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunction: implications for therapeutic vaccination for schizophrenia and other psychiatric conditions. Kipnis, J., Cohen, H., Cardon, M., Ziv, Y., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. COP-1, a member of the CCN family, is a heparin-induced growth arrest specific gene in vascular smooth muscle cells. Delmolino, L.M., Stearns, N.A., Castellot, J.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The correlation between severity of paraparesis and reduced density of resident antigen-presenting cells implicates an unknown role for the spinal perivascular macrophages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Schmitz, D.N., Hofmann, N., Tomov, T.L., Kovac, A.D., Neiss, W.F., Angelov, D.N. J. Neuroimmunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Glatiramer acetate blocks the activation of THP-1 cells by interferon-gamma. Li, Q., Milo, R., Panitch, H., Swoveland, P., Bever, C.T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Glatiramer acetate-specific T-helper 1- and 2-type cell lines produce BDNF: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Ziemssen, T., Kümpfel, T., Klinkert, W.E., Neuhaus, O., Hohlfeld, R. Brain (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with Copaxone (COP): Elispot assay detects COP-induced interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma response in blood cells. Farina, C., Then Bergh, F., Albrecht, H., Meinl, E., Yassouridis, A., Neuhaus, O., Hohlfeld, R. Brain (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Oral tolerance to copolymer 1 in myelin basic protein (MBP) TCR transgenic mice: cross-reactivity with MBP-specific TCR and differential induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Maron, R., Slavin, A.J., Hoffmann, E., Komagata, Y., Weiner, H.L. Int. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Glatiramer acetate (GA) induces IL-13/IL-5 secretion in naive T cells. Wiesemann, E., Klatt, J., Sönmez, D., Blasczyk, R., Heidenreich, F., Windhagen, A. J. Neuroimmunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Interferon-beta induces transient systemic IP-10/CXCL10 chemokine release in patients with multiple sclerosis. Buttmann, M., Merzyn, C., Rieckmann, P. J. Neuroimmunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by oral administration of copolymer 1. Teitelbaum, D., Arnon, R., Sela, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Therapeutic immunization protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Benner, E.J., Mosley, R.L., Destache, C.J., Lewis, T.B., Jackson-Lewis, V., Gorantla, S., Nemachek, C., Green, S.R., Przedborski, S., Gendelman, H.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Experimental therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with copolymer-1. Johnson, K.P. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Copolymer 1 reduces relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Johnson, K.P., Brooks, B.R., Cohen, J.A., Ford, C.C., Goldstein, J., Lisak, R.P., Myers, L.W., Panitch, H.S., Rose, J.W., Schiffer, R.B. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
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