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Disease relevance of Moths


High impact information on Moths

  • Moreover, several volatile compounds are released exclusively at night and are highly repellent to female moths (Heliothis virescens) [5].
  • Some interneurones in the antennal lobes of female moths that have received grafts of male antennae (gynandromorphs) respond postsynaptically to stimulation with bombykal, a major component of the pheromone [6].
  • Hormonal release of programmed behavior in silk moths: probable mediation by cyclic AMP [7].
  • The effects of the hormone were duplicated by the injection of dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) into theophylline-treated pharate moths [7].
  • Circadian clock neurons in the silkmoth Antheraea pernyi: novel mechanisms of Period protein regulation [8].

Biological context of Moths


Anatomical context of Moths


Associations of Moths with chemical compounds

  • The biogenic amine octopamine did not elicit pheromone production in isolated gland or abdomen bioassays or when injected into intact female moths [18].
  • The C10-C18 unsaturated, acyclic, aliphatic compounds that contain an oxygenated functional group (alcohol, aldehyde, or acetate ester) are a major class of sex pheromones produced by female moths [19].
  • Our results contrast dramatically with the prevailing hypothesis that the large majority of late-season moths are produced from larvae feeding on cotton, soybean, and other C3 plants [20].
  • In one October sample, 100% of the moths originated from C4 hosts even though C4 crops were harvested at least 1 mo earlier, and no common wild C4 hosts were available [20].
  • The insecticide diflubenzuron (DFB) is commonly used in various mid-Atlantic states for suppression of gypsy moths in hardwood forests [21].

Gene context of Moths

  • We cloned Clock, Bmal, and Timeless homologs (apClock, apBmal, and apTimeless) from the silkmoth Antheraea pernyi, from which a Period homolog (apPeriod) has already been cloned [22].
  • The ecdysone receptor(1), which is a heterodimer of EcR and the retinoic acid receptor (RXR) homolog, Ultraspiracle (USP), has been well studied in the evolutionarily advanced and derived insects, the flies and moths [23].
  • Inhibition studies revealed no apparent differences in sensitivity of AChE enzymes from resistant and susceptible moths to organophosphorus compounds (OPs), carbamate insecticides and quaternary ammonium ligands [24].
  • Characterization of JDP genes, an evolutionarily conserved J domain-only protein family, from human and moths [25].
  • Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Moths

  • Sensillum lymph perfusion experiments in the moth Antheraea polyphemus implied a solubilizer and carrier function of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and led to the conclusion that it is the pheromone-PBP complex which activates the postulated receptors [27].


  1. Identification and functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Sakurai, T., Nakagawa, T., Mitsuno, H., Mori, H., Endo, Y., Tanoue, S., Yasukochi, Y., Touhara, K., Nishioka, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Graves' disease: evolution and prognosis after eight months of treatment with methimazole. Gauna, A.T., Guillén, C.E., Sartorio, G.C., Soto, R.J. Medicina (B Aires) (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus gp64 gene. Wang, W., Zhu, S., Wang, L., Yu, F., Shen, W. J. Biosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Susceptibility of male oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from New Jersey apple orchards to azinphosmethyl. Usmani, K.A., Shearer, P.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Caterpillar-induced nocturnal plant volatiles repel conspecific females. De Moraes, C.M., Mescher, M.C., Tumlinson, J.H. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Trans-sexually grafted antennae alter pheromone-directed behaviour in a moth. Schneiderman, A.M., Hildebrand, J.G., Brennan, M.M., Tumlinson, J.H. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Hormonal release of programmed behavior in silk moths: probable mediation by cyclic AMP. Truman, J.W., Fallon, A.M., Wyatt, G.R. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Circadian clock neurons in the silkmoth Antheraea pernyi: novel mechanisms of Period protein regulation. Sauman, I., Reppert, S.M. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Two subtypes of ecdysis-triggering hormone receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. Park, Y., Kim, Y.J., Dupriez, V., Adams, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Odorant binding by a pheromone binding protein: active site mapping by photoaffinity labeling. Du, G., Ng, C.S., Prestwich, G.D. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Adult neurogenesis in a moth brain. Dufour, M.C., Gadenne, C. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS. Brody, J.G., Aschengrau, A., McKelvey, W., Rudel, R.A., Swartz, C.H., Kennedy, T. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in silkmoth-wing epidermis after hormone treatment. Katula, K.S., Gilbert, L.I., Sridhara, S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. (-)-Germacrene D increases attraction and oviposition by the tobacco budworm moth Heliothis virescens. Mozuraitis, R., Stranden, M., Ramirez, M.I., Borg-Karlson, A.K., Mustaparta, H. Chem. Senses (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of thyroxine on different ion-dependent ATPase activities in fat body of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D. Reddy, K.D., Chaudhuri, A., Thangavelu, K. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in moths: synthesis and evaluation of farnesol homologs as alternate substrates of farnesol oxidase. Sen, S.E., Sperry, A.E., Childress, M., Hannemann, D.E. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Protein purification, cDNA cloning and characterization of a protease inhibitor from the Indian tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. Shrivastava, B., Ghosh, A.K. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in the moth Helicoverpa zea: action of a brain hormone on pheromone glands involves Ca2+ and cAMP as second messengers. Jurenka, R.A., Jacquin, E., Roelofs, W.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Pheromone gland-specific fatty-acyl reductase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Moto, K., Yoshiga, T., Yamamoto, M., Takahashi, S., Okano, K., Ando, T., Nakata, T., Matsumoto, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: stable isotope assessment of alternate host use by Helicoverpazea. Gould, F., Blair, N., Reid, M., Rennie, T.L., Lopez, J., Micinski, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Environmental concentrations and aquatic toxicity data on diflubenzuron (dimilin). Fischer, S.A., Hall, L.W. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Constructing a feedback loop with circadian clock molecules from the silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi. Chang, D.C., McWatters, H.G., Williams, J.A., Gotter, A.L., Levine, J.D., Reppert, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Ligand specificity and developmental expression of RXR and ecdysone receptor in the migratory locust. Hayward, D.C., Dhadialla, T.S., Zhou, S., Kuiper, M.J., Ball, E.E., Wyatt, G.R., Walker, V.K. J. Insect Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of mechanisms of azinphos-methyl resistance in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). Reuveny, H., Cohen, E. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of JDP genes, an evolutionarily conserved J domain-only protein family, from human and moths. Lee, J., Hahn, Y., Yun, J.H., Mita, K., Chung, J.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus. Maida, R., Redkozubov, A., Ziegelberger, G. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. The multiple role of the pheromone-binding protein in olfactory transduction. Ziegelberger, G. Ciba Found. Symp. (1996) [Pubmed]
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