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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Observer Variation

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Disease relevance of Observer Variation


Psychiatry related information on Observer Variation


High impact information on Observer Variation

  • The ATge demonstrated good day-to-day reproducibility (r = 0.91, p less than 0.001, SEE = 1.74 ml/kg/min) and low interobserver variability and was associated with comparable increases in arterial lactate in the two groups above the resting value, 0.9 +/- 0.4 mM/l in patients and 0.8 +/- 0.5 mM/l in normal subjects [7].
  • We conclude that interobserver variability is high in interpreting biopsy specimens from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and that quantitative and standardized methods are needed to increase diagnostic consistency [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oral contrast bowel US is comparable with BE in defining anatomic location and extension of CD and superior to conventional US in detecting luminal complications, as well as reducing interobserver variability between sonographers [9].
  • As a potential alternative for assessment of HER2, we explored quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), a fast and inexpensive method yielding quantitative results insensitive to interobserver variability and amenable to standardized scoring [10].
  • The limitations of the study are discussed, including the limited power, the declines in latex protein concentrations, and the possibility of information (observer) bias [11].

Biological context of Observer Variation


Anatomical context of Observer Variation


Associations of Observer Variation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Observer Variation

  • Using strict methods to avoid observer bias, Ki-67 antigen was found in a high proportion of nuclei in the suprabasal layers together with HPV antigens, in the absence of PCNA staining [23].
  • Expression of p16 was restricted to CIN 2/CIN 3, CIN 1 associated with high-risk human papillomavirus, or cervical cancer. p16 immunostaining allowed precise identification of even small CIN or cervical cancer lesions in biopsy sections and helped to reduce interobserver variation in the histopathologic interpretation of cervical biopsy specimens [24].
  • By means of MIB1 expression we could recognize differences in proliferation among serous ovarian tumors, overcoming interobserver variability [25].
  • Interobserver variability showed moderate multirater kappa values concerning the ER (Reiner score: kappa=0.57) and PR scores (Reiner score: kappa=0.53) [26].
  • Especially with newly developed markers, such as MUM-1, the development of standardized techniques for staining and interpretation is critical to reduce inter-observer variability [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Observer Variation


  1. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerotic progression. Salonen, J.T., Salonen, R. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. IOIBD report no 1: Observer variation in calculating indices of severity and activity in Crohn's disease. International Organisation for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. de Dombal, F.T., Softley, A. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A new parameter for measuring metastatic bone involvement by prostate cancer: the Bone Scan Index. Imbriaco, M., Larson, S.M., Yeung, H.W., Mawlawi, O.R., Erdi, Y., Venkatraman, E.S., Scher, H.I. Clin. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Preoperative magnetic resonance staging of rectal cancer with an endorectal coil and dynamic gadolinium enhancement. Drew, P.J., Farouk, R., Turnbull, L.W., Ward, S.C., Hartley, J.E., Monson, J.R. The British journal of surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Qualitative and quantitative histopathology in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. An international investigation of intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Sørensen, F.B., Sasaki, M., Fukuzawa, S., Yamabe, H., Olsen, S., Yoshida, O. Lab. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Phase II study of vitamin E and pentoxifylline in patients with late side effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Gothard, L., Cornes, P., Brooker, S., Earl, J., Glees, J., Hall, E., Peckitt, C., Tait, D., Yarnold, J. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The anaerobic threshold in chronic heart failure. Relation to blood lactate, ventilatory basis, reproducibility, and response to exercise training. Sullivan, M.J., Cobb, F.R. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Interobserver variability in the pathologic interpretation of endomyocardial biopsy results. Shanes, J.G., Ghali, J., Billingham, M.E., Ferrans, V.J., Fenoglio, J.J., Edwards, W.D., Tsai, C.C., Saffitz, J.E., Isner, J., Furner, S. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Oral contrast enhanced bowel ultrasonography in the assessment of small intestine Crohn's disease. A prospective comparison with conventional ultrasound, x ray studies, and ileocolonoscopy. Parente, F., Greco, S., Molteni, M., Anderloni, A., Sampietro, G.M., Danelli, P.G., Bianco, R., Gallus, S., Bianchi Porro, G. Gut (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of HER2 and the coamplified genes GRB7 and MLN64 in human breast cancer: quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR as a diagnostic alternative to immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Vinatzer, U., Dampier, B., Streubel, B., Pacher, M., Seewald, M.J., Stratowa, C., Kaserer, K., Schreiber, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Incidence of latex sensitization among latex glove users. Sussman, G.L., Liss, G.M., Deal, K., Brown, S., Cividino, M., Siu, S., Beezhold, D.H., Smith, G., Swanson, M.C., Yunginger, J., Douglas, A., Holness, D.L., Lebert, P., Keith, P., Waserman, S., Turjanmaa, K. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Interpretation of captopril renography by nuclear medicine physicians. Schreij, G., van Kroonenburgh, M.J., Heidendal, G.K., van der Pol, H.A., de Leeuw, P.W. J. Nucl. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Correlates of delayed motor nerve conduction and retinopathy in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. Hoffman, W.H., Hart, Z.H., Frank, R.N. J. Pediatr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. High frequency epicardial echocardiography for coronary artery evaluation: in vitro and in vivo validation of arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements. McPherson, D.D., Armstrong, M., Rose, E., Kieso, R.A., Megan, M., Hunt, M., Hite, P., Marcus, M.L., Kerber, R.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Observer variation of encapsulated follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Hirokawa, M., Carney, J.A., Goellner, J.R., DeLellis, R.A., Heffess, C.S., Katoh, R., Tsujimoto, M., Kakudo, K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography of renal artery stenosis: diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability. Völk, M., Strotzer, M., Lenhart, M., Manke, C., Nitz, W.R., Seitz, J., Feuerbach, S., Link, J. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Correlation between left ventriculography, auscultation, and M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in mitral valve prolapse. Cohen, M.V., Spindola-Franco, H. Herz. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Fetal posterior fossa volume: assessment with MR imaging. Chen, S.C., Simon, E.M., Haselgrove, J.C., Bilaniuk, L.T., Sutton, L.N., Johnson, M.P., Shera, D.M., Zimmerman, R.A. Radiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. High-spatial-resolution MR angiography of renal arteries with integrated parallel acquisitions: comparison with digital subtraction angiography and US. Schoenberg, S.O., Rieger, J., Weber, C.H., Michaely, H.J., Waggershauser, T., Ittrich, C., Dietrich, O., Reiser, M.F. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A multicenter trial on interobserver reproducibility in reporting on 99mTc-DMSA planar scintigraphy: a Belgian survey. De Sadeleer, C., Tondeur, M., Melis, K., Van Espen, M.B., Verelst, J., Ham, H., Piepsz, A. J. Nucl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Reproducibility of quantitative planar thallium-201 scintigraphy: quantitative criteria for reversibility of myocardial perfusion defects. Sigal, S.L., Soufer, R., Fetterman, R.C., Mattera, J.A., Wackers, F.J. J. Nucl. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Interobserver variability in the interpretation of myocardial images with Tc-99m-labeled diphosphonate and pyrophosphate. Cuarón, A., Acero, A.P., Cárdenas, M., Huerta, D., Rodríguez, A., de Garay, R. J. Nucl. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. PCNA independence of Ki-67 expression in HPV infection. Boon, M.E., Howard, C.V., van Velzen, D. Cell Biol. Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. p16INK4a immunohistochemistry improves interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Klaes, R., Benner, A., Friedrich, T., Ridder, R., Herrington, S., Jenkins, D., Kurman, R.J., Schmidt, D., Stoler, M., von Knebel Doeberitz, M. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Adjuvant role of MIB1 index in differentiating serous ovarian tumors-preliminary report. Frigerio, L., Agnello, A., Sassi, I., Mangili, F., Taccagni, G., Mariani, A., Ferrari, A. Anticancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Quality assurance for detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors by immunohistochemistry in Austrian pathology laboratories. Regitnig, P., Reiner, A., Dinges, H.P., Höfler, G., Müller-Holzner, E., Lax, S.F., Obrist, P., Rudas, M., Quehenberger, F. Virchows Arch. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Validation of tissue microarray immunohistochemistry staining and interpretation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Zu, Y., Steinberg, S.M., Campo, E., Hans, C.P., Weisenburger, D.D., Braziel, R.M., Delabie, J., Gascoyne, R.D., Muller-Hermlink, K., Pittaluga, S., Raffeld, M., Chan, W.C., Jaffe, E.S. Leuk. Lymphoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of severity scoring systems in ICUs--translation, conversion and definition ambiguities as a source of inter-observer variability in Apache II, SAPS and OSF. Féry-Lemonnier, E., Landais, P., Loirat, P., Kleinknecht, D., Brivet, F. Intensive care medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Reduced variability of interpretation and improved image quality with a technetium 99m myocardial perfusion agent: comparison of thallium 201 and technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin. Hendel, R.C., Parker, M.A., Wackers, F.J., Rigo, P., Lahiri, A., Zaret, B.L. Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method. Parodi, R.C., Sardanelli, F., Renzetti, P., Rosso, E., Losacco, C., Ferrari, A., Levrero, F., Pilot, A., Inglese, M., Mancardi, G.L. European radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Quantification of central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential in the brain with 123I-iomazenil SPECT: technical and interobserver variability. Verhoeff, N.P., Erbas, B., Kapucu, O., Busemann Sokole, E., Blok, H., Van Royen, E.A. Nuclear medicine communications. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Assessment of left ventricular wall motion and delineation of the endocardial border after intravenous injection of Infoson during dobutamine stress echocardiography. Ikonomidis, I., Holmes, E., Narbuvold, H., Bolstad, B., Muan, B., Nihoyannopoulos, P. Coron. Artery Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
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