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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Spinal Canal

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Disease relevance of Spinal Canal

  • Lipiodol and Pantopaque are not absorbed and residual medium in the spinal canal can cause arachnoiditis [1].
  • IV prostaglandin E1 improves clinical symptoms in patients with spinal canal stenosis [2].
  • We conclude that a posterior transdural approach may offer an alternative surgical option for select patients with multilevel cervical spondylosis with superimposed midline soft disc herniation in whom multiple segment decompression plus access to the anterior spinal canal is necessary [3].
  • Cytokeratin (as detected by CAM 5.2) was present in all the choroid plexus lesions and also in the ependymomas arising in the spinal canal [4].
  • This report describes the unique case of a child born with paraplegia and a neurogenic bladder who was found to have a dysplastic, nonossified T-12 vertebral body, midline fusion of the T-12 neural arches, obliteration of the spinal canal at T-12, and an extraspinal thecal sac in the T11-L1 region [5].

High impact information on Spinal Canal

  • Conventional and single-fiber electromyographic studies in two patients with a wasted hand associated with spondylotic narrowing of the spinal canal at C3-4 and C5-6 revealed changes that were most severe in the hand muscles (C8, T1) and moderately severe in the extensor digitorum communis (C7), but relatively spared the C5 and C6 myotomes [6].
  • Therefore, retained intraspinal iophendylate may be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal areas of low signal intensity at the periphery of the spinal canal on GRASS images [7].
  • The Pantopaque appeared as a linear band of high signal intensity along the dependent portion of the spinal canal on MR images obtained with a repetition time of 500 msec and an echo time of 30 msec [8].
  • They consist of a short-duration negativity (N18 and N10, respectively), which reflects the afferent volley before it enters the spinal canal, and a longer-duration, later negativity (N20 and N12, respectively), which consists mainly of slow frequencies and most probably is a postsynaptic dorsal cord potential [9].
  • We report on a boy with a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) Ia and a severe narrowing of the spinal canal caused by atlantoaxial subluxation with anterior displacement of C1 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Spinal Canal


Biological context of Spinal Canal

  • METHODS: In a period covering the past 3 years, we retrospectively reviewed: a) urodynamic case records of women with urinary retention (post-void residuals, PVR > 100 ml), b) the records of women with LUTD due to LS (cauda equina syndrome and spinal canal narrowing by MRI), and c) uro-neurological features of women who belonged to both a) and b) [16].
  • The most prevalent species of myiasis in cattle, sheep and wild cervids (Hypoderma spp.) present a very different life cycle from human myiasis, with a long contact with neurologic structures, such as the spinal canal and epidural fat, that are potentially rich in prion rods [17].
  • Given the previously reported promoting action of CDMP-1 for chondrogenesis, the current results suggest that CDMP-1 may be involved in the progression of OLF, leading to the narrowing of spinal canal and thus causing severe clinical manifestations [18].

Anatomical context of Spinal Canal

  • A histologically typical chordoma and its four recurrences (3.5, 4, 7, and 7.5 years later) were operated from the spinal canal and I-III lumbar vertebrae of a 49-year-old woman [19].
  • CONCLUSION: In healthy adults, a slight degree of flexion equivalent to 2 cm of occiput elevation produces a favorable increase in spinal canal/spinal cord ration at levels C5 and C6, a region of frequent unstable spine injuries [20].
  • Serum PRL level was 1408 mU/l. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a spindle-shaped mass in the spinal canal at the level of the ninth thoracic vertebra [21].
  • Hemitransection resulted in partial loss of immunoreactive neuronal elements on the cut side, but 5-HT-like immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed crossing within the cord from the intact side by the spinal canal [22].
  • There were four OPLL cases with insufficiently decompressed dura mater in the well-enlarged spinal canal after surgery [23].

Associations of Spinal Canal with chemical compounds

  • To objectively measure the amount of ventral cervicomedullary encroachment by the odontoid and its investing tissues into the rostral spinal canal, a line (B-C2) was drawn between the basion and posteroinferior aspect of the C2 body on a sagittal magnetic resonance image [24].
  • The midsagittal spinal canal diameter was increased by a mean of 38% and the spinal canal area was increased by an average of 43% at the level of C5 [25].
  • Symmetrical expansion of the spinal canal was clearly demonstrated by computed tomograms, and the metrizamide ring on the myelograms had a normal rounded curvature [26].
  • The fracture was noted to differ significantly from the usual "hangman's fracture" as it involved the body of C2 with subluxation of the anterior part of C2 forward on C3 and without "decompression" of the spinal canal at the C2 level [27].
  • By using preoperative and postoperative radiographs and computed tomographic scans, the degree of spinal canal compromise was quantified in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes [28].

Gene context of Spinal Canal

  • These studies extend our finding of reduced spinal canal CSF CRH concentrations in depressed patients to abstinent chronic alcoholics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[29]
  • Four had lesions between T3 and T10, where the spinal canal is narrow, of whom three (75 percent had neurologic involvement [30].
  • MRI of the entire spinal canal was obtained in 54 patients aged 5-56 years with NF1 [31].
  • In patients who do not satisfy the NIH criteria, it can be a helpful observation that spinal tumours in NF1 are primarily intraforaminal, extending into the spinal canal, while in NF2 they are mostly intraspinal intradural tumours [31].
  • There was no evidence of spinal canal or nerve root encroachment in the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 treatment groups [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spinal Canal

  • However, when irradiation was performed with use of the cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, there was an increase in the dose of radiation delivered to the spinal canal in the presence of the anterior instrumentation systems, particularly the anterior column reconstruction with use of bone cement-filled chest tubes [33].
  • However, the concentrations of methotrexate and cytarabine in the lumbar spinal canal exceeded those in the ventricles 3 hours after perfusion [34].
  • The anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal at C5 and C6 in the painful-shoulder group (C5: 12.74 mm; C6: 12.76 mm) was significantly narrower than in the control group (C5: 13.60 mm; C6: 13.79 mm) [35].
  • Surgical decompression of bullets from the spinal canal has been shown to improve neurologic recovery below the T12 level [36].
  • Intertransverse discectomy is a rational technique-its advantages are that the spinal canal is not opened, spine stability is maintained, and multiple disc herniation can be managed through a single posterior midline incision [37].


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  3. Transdural approach to the anterior spinal canal in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and superimposed central soft disc herniation. Fox, M.W., Onofrio, B.M. Neurosurgery (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Subepithelial basement membrane deposition and intermediate filament expression in choroid plexus neoplasms and ependymomas. Furness, P.N., Lowe, J., Tarrant, G.S. Histopathology (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. The "filum intermedium" sign: focal in utero spinal cord infarct and extraspinal thecal sac. Case report. Mamelak, A.N., Cogen, P.H., Barkovich, A.J. J. Neurosurg. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  7. Cerebrospinal fluid-iophendylate contrast on gradient-echo MR images. Jack, C.R., Gehring, D.G., Ehman, R.L., Felmlee, J.P. Radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Appearance of Pantopaque on MR images. Mamourian, A.C., Briggs, R.W. Radiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Origin of far-field subcortical evoked potentials to posterior tibial and median nerve stimulation. A comparative study. Lueders, H., Dinner, D.S., Lesser, R.P., Klem, G. Arch. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Skeletal dysplasia and myelopathy in congenital disorder of glycosylation type IA. Schade van Westrum, S.M., Nederkoorn, P.J., Schuurman, P.R., Vulsma, T., Duran, M., Poll-The, B.T. J. Pediatr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Severe motor tics causing cervical myelopathy in Tourette's syndrome. Krauss, J.K., Jankovic, J. Mov. Disord. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Orthopaedic features in the presentation of syringomyelia. Williams, B. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Intermittent vertebral artery compression caused by C1-root schwannoma: case report. Kalavakonda, C., Sekhar, L.N., Jones, R.V., Rehaman, A.B. Neurol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease as a cause of lumbar canal stenosis. Markiewitz, A.D., Boumphrey, F.R., Bauer, T.W., Bell, G.R. Spine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonist on blood flow in chronically compressed nerve roots. Sekiguchi, M., Konno, S., Kikuchi, S. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Is lumbar spondylosis a cause of urinary retention in elderly women? Sakakibara, R., Yamamoto, T., Uchiyama, T., Liu, Z., Ito, T., Yamazaki, M., Awa, Y., Yamanishi, T., Hattori, T. J. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Risk analysis of ectoparasites acting as vectors for chronic wasting disease. Lupi, O. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation and localization of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 at the site of ossification of the ligamentum flavum. Nakase, T., Ariga, K., Yonenobu, K., Tsumaki, N., Luyten, F.P., Mukai, Y., Sato, I., Yoshikawa, H. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma within a recurrent chordoma. A light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical study. Miettinen, M., Lehto, V.P., Virtanen, I. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Optimal positioning for cervical immobilization. De Lorenzo, R.A., Olson, J.E., Boska, M., Johnston, R., Hamilton, G.C., Augustine, J., Barton, R. Annals of emergency medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Galactorrhoea and amenorrhoea due to an intradural neurinoma originating from a thoracic intercostal nerve radicle. Katsuren, E., Ishikawa, S., Honda, K., Saito, T. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Spinal cord serotonin: a biochemical and immunohistochemical study following transection. Hadjiconstantinou, M., Panula, P., Lackovic, Z., Neff, N.H. Brain Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of dural configuration for evaluation of posterior decompression in cervical myelopathy. Ishida, Y., Ohmori, K., Suzuki, K., Inoue, H. Neurosurgery (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Ventral brain stem compression in pediatric and young adult patients with Chiari I malformations. Grabb, P.A., Mapstone, T.B., Oakes, W.J. Neurosurgery (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Minimally invasive cervical expansile laminoplasty: an initial cadaveric study. Wang, M.Y., Green, B.A., Coscarella, E., Baskaya, M.K., Levi, A.D., Guest, J.D. Neurosurgery (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Cervical myelopathy treated by canal-expansive laminaplasty. Computed tomographic and myelographic findings. Kimura, I., Oh-Hama, M., Shingu, H. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. An unusual type of hangman's fracture. Marotta, T.R., White, L., TerBrugge, K.G., Spiegel, S.M., Stevens, J.K., Tator, C.M. Neurosurgery (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Management of thoracolumbar fractures with accompanying neurological injury. Lemons, V.R., Wagner, F.C., Montesano, P.X. Neurosurgery (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Concentrations of corticotropin-releasing hormone, norepinephrine, MHPG, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and tryptophan in the cerebrospinal fluid of alcoholic patients: serial sampling studies. Geracioti, T.D., Loosen, P.T., Ebert, M.H., Ekhator, N.N., Burns, D., Nicholson, W.E., Orth, D.N. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Pott's disease. A resurgent challenge to the thoracic surgeon. Omari, B., Robertson, J.M., Nelson, R.J., Chiu, L.C. Chest (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Spinal tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: an MRI study of frequency, multiplicity and variety. Thakkar, S.D., Feigen, U., Mautner, V.F. Neuroradiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Lumbar spinal fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in the canine. A comparison of three dosages and two carriers. David, S.M., Gruber, H.E., Meyer, R.A., Murakami, T., Tabor, O.B., Howard, B.A., Wozney, J.M., Hanley, E.N. Spine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Spinal implants and radiation therapy: the effect of various configurations of titanium implant systems in a single-level vertebral metastasis model. Pekmezci, M., Dirican, B., Yapici, B., Yazici, M., Alanay, A., Gürdalli, S. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs in cerebrospinal fluid. Morikawa, N., Mori, T., Kawashima, H., Takeyama, M., Hori, S. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Relation between the painful shoulder and the cervical spine with narrow canal in patients without obvious radiculopathy. Mimori, K., Muneta, T., Komori, H., Okawa, A., Shinomiya, K. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Spinal cord injuries from gunshot wounds to the spine. Waters, R.L., Sie, I.H. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Intertransverse approach for extraforaminal herniations. Wang, Q.P., Lee, N.S., Zhang, Y., Liu, J., Zhu, J.Y. Spine. (1997) [Pubmed]
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