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MeSH Review

Taste Buds

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Disease relevance of Taste Buds


High impact information on Taste Buds

  • An important early event in mammalian gustatory transduction with respect to sodium chloride has been found to be the passage of sodium ions through specific transport pathways in the apical region of the taste bud [4].
  • Immunostaining studies showed a distribution of CD36 along the apical side of circumvallate taste bud cells [5].
  • Expression, physiological action, and coexpression patterns of neuropeptide Y in rat taste-bud cells [6].
  • To date, two peptides, cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptide, have been localized to subsets of taste-bud (TB) cells (TBC) and one, cholecystokinin, has been demonstrated to produce excitatory physiological actions [6].
  • Accumulated 45Ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste [7].

Biological context of Taste Buds

  • The results suggest that the Shh signaling pathway may be involved in: 1) establishing papillary boundaries in taste papilla morphogenesis, 2) papillary epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and/or 3) specifying the location or development of taste buds within taste papillae [8].
  • Despite the smooth morphological appearance of the lingual dorsal surface at 13 days of gestation, we observed embryonic taste bud primordia as discrete collections of cytokeratin 8-positive and elongated cells in epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue [9].
  • To track DNA synthesis and subsequent taste bud cell proliferation between E17 and the second day post-hatching (H2), single 25 muCi injections of tritiated thymidine (specific activity = 72.5 Ci/mmol) were administered in ovo during E15, E16, E17 or E18 [10].
  • The common distribution of CGRP-IR and NSE-IR fibers at the base of taste buds, their differential distribution and morphology within taste buds, added to their restricted nature (gustatory or somatosensory) suggest that a population of CGRP-IR fibers undergoes a target-induced inhibition of its CGRP phenotype while entering the taste buds [11].
  • Investigated taste bud cells generated action potentials, and 1 M glucose, 200 mM NaCl, and 10 mM quinine elicited inward current [12].

Anatomical context of Taste Buds


Associations of Taste Buds with chemical compounds

  • Taste buds in grafts and in explants were identical to those found in situ both in terms of their morphology and their expression of calretinin and serotonin immunoreactivity [18].
  • On the other hand, RT-PCR and RNase protection assays indicated that a G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4, also is expressed in lingual tissues and is limited only to taste buds [13].
  • The taste of monosodium glutamate: membrane receptors in taste buds [13].
  • Interaction of alpha-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester with the receptor site of the sweet taste bud [19].
  • When citric acid was applied while the taste bud was stimulated by NaCl, the action currents became smaller and the response resembled that produced by acid alone [20].

Gene context of Taste Buds

  • Only bdnf(-/-) mice had numerous taste buds missing from the foliate, vallate, and posterior fungiform papillae [21].
  • To assess the role of NT4/5 during development, we examined the postnatal development and maintenance of fungiform taste buds in mice carrying a deletion of NT4/5 [22].
  • Egfr(-/-) mice and bdnf(-/-) mice had similar reductions in the total number of taste buds on the anterior portions of the tongue and palate [21].
  • NT-3 mRNA labeling was observed in the adult fungiform taste buds, overlapping with BDNF mRNA labeling, in contrast to what was seen in rodents [23].
  • Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Taste Buds


  1. Peptides that regulate food intake: somatostatin alters intake of amino acid-imbalanced diets and taste buds of tongue in rats. Scalera, G. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Metastasizing neuroblastomas from taste buds in rats transgenic for the Simian virus 40 large T antigen under control of the probasin gene promoter. Asamoto, M., Hokaiwado, N., Cho, Y.M., Ikeda, Y., Takahashi, S., Shirai, T. Toxicologic pathology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunohistochemical localisation of regulatory neuropeptides in human circumvallate papillae. Kusakabe, T., Matsuda, H., Gono, Y., Furukawa, M., Hiruma, H., Kawakami, T., Tsukuda, M., Takenaka, T. J. Anat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Salt taste transduction occurs through an amiloride-sensitive sodium transport pathway. Heck, G.L., Mierson, S., DeSimone, J.A. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. CD36 involvement in orosensory detection of dietary lipids, spontaneous fat preference, and digestive secretions. Laugerette, F., Passilly-Degrace, P., Patris, B., Niot, I., Febbraio, M., Montmayeur, J.P., Besnard, P. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression, physiological action, and coexpression patterns of neuropeptide Y in rat taste-bud cells. Zhao, F.L., Shen, T., Kaya, N., Lu, S.G., Cao, Y., Herness, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: role in bitter taste transduction. Hwang, P.M., Verma, A., Bredt, D.S., Snyder, S.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of sonic hedgehog, patched, and Gli1 in developing taste papillae of the mouse. Hall, J.M., Hooper, J.E., Finger, T.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Distribution of keratin 8-containing cell clusters in mouse embryonic tongue: evidence for a prepattern for taste bud development. Mbiene, J.P., Roberts, J.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Taste bud cell generation in the perihatching chick. Ganchrow, D., Ganchrow, J.R., Gross-Isseroff, R., Kinnamon, J.C. Chem. Senses (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase and calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat taste papillae. Montavon, P., Lindstrand, K. Regul. Pept. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. A method for in-situ tight-seal recordings from single taste bud cells of mice. Furue, H., Yoshii, K. J. Neurosci. Methods (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. The taste of monosodium glutamate: membrane receptors in taste buds. Chaudhari, N., Yang, H., Lamp, C., Delay, E., Cartford, C., Than, T., Roper, S. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunocytochemistry of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, serotonin, and histamine in Necturus taste buds. Jain, S., Roper, S.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Notch-associated gene expression in embryonic and adult taste papillae and taste buds suggests a role in taste cell lineage decisions. Seta, Y., Seta, C., Barlow, L.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of innervation on the levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in the circumvallate papilla of the rat. Cano, J., Lobera, B., Rodriguez-Echandia, E.L., Machado, A. J. Neurobiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. The nature of the substance P-containing nerve fibres in taste papillae of the rat tongue. Nagy, J.I., Goedert, M., Hunt, S.P., Bond, A. Neuroscience (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Embryonic taste buds develop in the absence of innervation. Barlow, L.A., Chien, C.B., Northcutt, R.G. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction of alpha-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester with the receptor site of the sweet taste bud. Lelj, F., Tancredi, T., Temussi, P.A., Toniolo, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Proton currents through amiloride-sensitive Na channels in hamster taste cells. Role in acid transduction. Gilbertson, T.A., Avenet, P., Kinnamon, S.C., Roper, S.D. J. Gen. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Development of anterior gustatory epithelia in the palate and tongue requires epidermal growth factor receptor. Sun, H., Oakley, B. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. NT4/5 mutant mice have deficiency in gustatory papillae and taste bud formation. Liebl, D.J., Mbiene, J.P., Parada, L.F. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Lingual BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression patterns and their relation to innervation in the human tongue: similarities and differences compared with rodents. Nosrat, I.V., Lindskog, S., Seiger, A., Nosrat, C.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells. Takeda, M., Suzuki, Y., Obara, N., Uchida, N., Kawakoshi, K. J. Comp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular cloning of Ebnerin, a von Ebner's gland protein associated with taste buds. Li, X.J., Snyder, S.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Shh and Ptc are associated with taste bud maintenance in the adult mouse. Miura, H., Kusakabe, Y., Sugiyama, C., Kawamatsu, M., Ninomiya, Y., Motoyama, J., Hino, A. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Responses to glutamate in rat taste cells. Bigiani, A., Delay, R.J., Chaudhari, N., Kinnamon, S.C., Roper, S.D. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Chemoreceptors expressed in taste, olfactory and male reproductive tissues. Thomas, M.B., Haines, S.L., Akeson, R.A. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
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