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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Epiglottis


High impact information on Epiglottis

  • Tissue specimens were then taken from the tongue, epiglottis, and forestomach of each animal and immunohistochemically stained for markers of cellular proliferation (Ki67 nuclear antigen) or differentiation (cytokeratins 1, 4, 10, 11, 14, and 19) [6].
  • Hoarseness developed in a 60-year-old man that was secondary to ulcerated lesions, which involved the epiglottis and aryteno-epiglottic folds, with serologic evidence of SLE after he had been treated with hydralazine for six months [7].
  • CONCLUSION: Increasing depth of propofol anesthesia in children is associated with upper airway narrowing that occurs throughout the entire upper airway and is most pronounced in the hypopharynx at the level of the epiglottis [8].
  • No correlation was found between the size of the LMA and the position of the epiglottis with respect to end-tidal CO2, respiratory rate, or the leak pressures [9].
  • Patient information, including midline distance from teeth/gums to prevertebral space (L1) and distance along a perpendicular line from L1 to the epiglottis tip (L2), was recorded [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Epiglottis


Biological context of Epiglottis

  • A questionnaire was sent to all tutors asking them to indicate their preferred choice of anaesthetic technique, and whether they believed inhalation induction with sevoflurane to be acceptable, in each of four scenarios: acute epiglottis; bleeding after tonsillectomy; appendicitis; and laparotomy in the shocked patient [14].

Anatomical context of Epiglottis

  • Computerised axial tomography (coronal plane) was used to measure the vertical distance between the tip of the epiglottis (E) and (1) the soft palate (SP) (i.e. E-SP distance) and (2) the dorsal wall of the nasopharynx (N) (i.e. E-N distance) [15].
  • Responses were recorded from single fibers of the sheep superior laryngeal nerve during stimulation of the epiglottis with 0.5 M KCl, NH4Cl, NaCl and LiCl, distilled water, 0.005 M citric acid, and 0.01 N HCl [16].
  • While most types of cartilage in humans are believed to be of mesenchymal origin, embryologic relationship between epiglottal cartilage and the neural crest may play a role in the curious phenomenon of the regular presence of GFAP in the chondrocytes of the epiglottis [17].
  • The distribution of substance P (SP)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the taste buds of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds was compared between normoxic control and chronically isocapnic hypoxic rats (10% O2 and 3-4% CO2 for 3 months) [18].
  • By means of laryngeal microdissection and whole mount orcein staining, distinct bands of fascial condensations were identified running from the lateral edge of the epiglottis just superior to the attachment of the median hyoepiglottic ligament to the hyoid bone near the ends of the greater horns [19].

Associations of Epiglottis with chemical compounds

  • All patients had a nasotracheal tube placed in the operating room, were treated with ampicillin or chloramphenicol, and tracheal extubation was performed when the epiglottis was markedly reduced in size to a point where examiners estimated the thickness of the proximal portion of the epiglottis to be 3-4 mm or less [20].
  • Flow was measured using a pneumotachometer and a sealed face mask; epiglottic pressure by a latex balloon placed just above the epiglottis and choanal pressure by anterior rhinometry [21].
  • Radiographic anatomy measured included the angle of the valleculae, retropharyngeal soft tissue width at C2, retrotracheal soft tissue width at C6, width of the epiglottis, width of the aryepiglottic folds, and the hypopharyngeal to tracheal air column ratio [22].
  • The abnormality of the epiglottis was corrected by use of a sedative dose of xylazine hydrochloride [23].
  • Substance P- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers and numerous mast cells were found in the epiglottis and in the subglottic region of the larynx [24].

Gene context of Epiglottis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Epiglottis


  1. A novel loss-of-function mutation in TTF-2 is associated with congenital hypothyroidism, thyroid agenesis and cleft palate. Castanet, M., Park, S.M., Smith, A., Bost, M., Léger, J., Lyonnet, S., Pelet, A., Czernichow, P., Chatterjee, K., Polak, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Quantitation of antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b in humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dahlberg, T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Edema formation in the rat larynx. Lidegran, M., Domeij, S., Carlsöö, B., Dahlqvist, A. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Acute upper airway obstruction. Sodium warfarin-induced hemorrhage into the base of the tongue and epiglottis. Lee, M., Berger, H.W., Granada, M.G. Chest (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Angioedema for the epiglottis associated with enalapril. Tsunoda, K., Hozaki, F., Aikawa, J. Laryngoscope (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of acetaldehyde on cell regeneration and differentiation of the upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Homann, N., Kärkkäinen, P., Koivisto, T., Nosova, T., Jokelainen, K., Salaspuro, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Hydralazine hoarseness. A new appearance of drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Weiser, G.A., Forouhar, F.A., White, W.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of increasing depth of propofol anesthesia on upper airway configuration in children. Evans, R.G., Crawford, M.W., Noseworthy, M.D., Yoo, S.J. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Radiologic localization of the laryngeal mask airway in children. Goudsouzian, N.G., Denman, W., Cleveland, R., Shorten, G. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Assessment of oropharyngeal distance in children using magnetic resonance imaging. Greenberg, R.S., Zahurak, M., Belden, C., Tunkel, D.E. Anesth. Analg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute upper airway angioedema secondary to acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency: a case report. Wong, D.T., Gadsden, J.C. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Antigen challenge induces a supraglottic but not a subglottic edema in the rat larynx. Niklasson, A., Dahlqvist, A. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Cefuroxime therapy for bacteremic soft-tissue infections in children. Barson, W.J., Miller, M.A., Marcon, M.J., Hribar, M.M., Brady, M.T., Pacini, D.L., Powell, D.A. Am. J. Dis. Child. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhalational versus intravenous induction. A survey of emergency anaesthetic practice in the United Kingdom. Moore, E.W., Davies, M.W. European journal of anaesthesiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of hyoepiglotticus muscle contraction on canine upper airway geometry. Amis, T.C., O'Neill, N., Brancatisano, A. Respiration physiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Superior laryngeal nerve response patterns to chemical stimulation of sheep epiglottis. Bradley, R.M., Stedman, H.M., Mistretta, C.M. Brain Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Glial fibrillary acidic protein in chondrocytes of elastic cartilage in the human epiglottis: an immunohistochemical study with polyvalent and monoclonal antibodies. Kepes, J.J., Perentes, E. Anat. Rec. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in the immunoreactivity of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the laryngeal taste buds of chronically hypoxic rats. Kusakabe, T., Yoshida, T., Matsuda, H., Yamamoto, Y., Hayashida, Y., Kawakami, T., Takenaka, T. Histol. Histopathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Intrinsic fibre architecture and attachments of the human epiglottis and their contributions to the mechanism of deglutition. Vandaele, D.J., Perlman, A.L., Cassell, M.D. J. Anat. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Epiglottitis--duration of intubation and fever. Rothstein, P., Lister, G. Anesth. Analg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of inspiratory nasal loading on pharyngeal resistance. Gleeson, K., Zwillich, C.W., Bendrick, T.W., White, D.P. J. Appl. Physiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Radiographic parameters in adult epiglottitis. Schumaker, H.M., Doris, P.E., Birnbaum, G. Annals of emergency medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Xylazine-induced attenuation of dorsal displacement of the soft palate associated with epiglottic dysfunction in a horse. Duggan, V.E., MacAllister, C.G., Davis, M.S. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Similar distribution of mast cells and substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the adult human larynx. Domeij, S., Dahlqvist, A., Eriksson, A., Forsgren, S. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Preferential expression of the G90 gene in post-mitotic cells during mouse embryonic development. Meunier, D., Peters, T., Lüttges, A., Curfs, J., Fundele, R. Anat. Embryol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Significance of bifid epiglottis. Stevens, C.A., Ledbetter, J.C. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Light and electron microscopic studies of localized laryngeal amyloidosis. Nagata, H., Yoshihara, T., Nomoto, M., Kanda, T., Kaneko, T., Yaku, Y. Archives of oto-rhino-laryngology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Scanning electron microscope study of tongue development in the CD-1 mouse fetus. Paulson, R.B., Hayes, T.G., Sucheston, M.E. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. ABO blood groups system in laryngeal cancer patients and after survival of 3 and 5 years. Konieczna, A., Turowski, G. Materia medica Polona. Polish journal of medicine and pharmacy. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Prognostic and neurophysiological implications of concurrent burst suppression and alpha patterns in the EEG of post-anoxic coma. Zaret, B.S. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
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