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MeSH Review

Periodontal Index

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Disease relevance of Periodontal Index


Psychiatry related information on Periodontal Index

  • Results were compared with (i) self-assessments prior to (preconception) and following (post-measurement) self-measurements; (ii) odor judge scores; (iii) dental-measurements (plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth); (iv) volatile sulphide levels; (v) salivary cadaverine levels; and (vi) intra-oral trypsin-like activity [6].
  • RESULTS: Subjects in the L and T groups demonstrated statistically significantly lower (P < .001) Modified Gingival Index, or MGI; Bleeding Index, or BI; and Plaque Index, or PI, at both three and six months than subjects in the P group [7].

High impact information on Periodontal Index

  • In the multiple regression model, LVMI was dependent on CPITN (P<0.001), HS-CRP (P<0.05), serum cholesterol (P<0.05), and creatinine concentration (P<0.05) [8].
  • Gingival Index is not a clinically important marker for bone loss, but collagenase-2 and collagenase-3 in peri-implant sulcus fluid are [9].
  • The gingival index scores in the Meridol group were higher than in the chlorhexidine group and lower than in the placebo group [10].
  • The effect of an experimental chewable antiplaque preparation containing chlorhexidine on plaque and gingival index scores [11].
  • This clinical cross-over trial investigated the effects of a chewable preparation containing chorhexidine-fluoride-xylitol, xylitol control tablets, or chlorhexidine mouthwash, twice daily, on plaque and gingival index scores of subjects refraining from mechanical cleaning of their teeth [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Periodontal Index


Biological context of Periodontal Index


Anatomical context of Periodontal Index

  • Plasma and leukocyte ascorbate levels, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing depths, and attachment level were monitored at the beginning and end of the depletion and repletion periods [15].
  • On days 0 and 30 of a double blind study, two groups of 15 subjects each were evaluated using a plaque index, a gingival index, a gingival exudate flow and fasting plasma folic acid levels [16].
  • METHOD: Clinical measurements including gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss (AL), and GCF samples were taken from four lower incisors and the upper right posterior sextant of each patient at baseline and 6-month visits by means of sterile paper strips [17].
  • RESULTS: With respect to gingival index, plaque index, nonmarginal gingival index, nongingival oral mucosa index, tooth vitality, and tooth sensitivity, there were no statistically significant differences between the 16% carbamide peroxide solution and the other two solutions (p > .05) [18].

Associations of Periodontal Index with chemical compounds

  • Clinical assessments (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding Tendency, pocket depth, and coronal staining) were made before appliances were placed and at one, three, six, and nine months after appliances were placed [19].
  • Patients in the lowest tertile of CPITN score exhibited decreased salivary delivery of antioxidants and specifically urate than patients in the upper tertile [20].
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal relationship between abnormal serum glucose levels and elevated CPITN scores in non-diabetic patients [21].
  • It is concluded that (a) the model can be used to establish the potential efficacy of a dentifrice to maintain gingival health, (b) the dentifrice containing zinc citrate and Triclosan was efficacious and (c) the Gingival Index possibly overestimates the proportion of healthy gingival sites [22].
  • Positive associations were found between the presence of B. forsythus and AST values, gingival index, probing depth, and attachment level (P < 0.05) [23].

Gene context of Periodontal Index

  • Total amount of glutathione peroxidase, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase and IL-1beta was positively correlated with plaque index, gingival index, probing depth and probing attachment level (p < 0.05) [24].
  • The clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded and GCF samples were collected for analysis of GCF contents of IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels [25].
  • Correlations between various salivary components and the clinical parameters were examined, showing significant correlations between ALB and gingival index (GI) and clinical attachment level (CAL), and between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and GI, probing depth (PlI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and CAL [26].
  • To determine the binding capacity of EGF to its receptor, inflamed gingival tissues (pocket depth > or = 5 mm, Gingival Index = 1, 2 or 3) were collected during periodontal flap surgery and non-inflamed gingival tissues (pocket depth < 5 mm, Gingival Index = 0) were collected during surgical "crown lengthening' for aesthetic purposes [27].
  • Clinical findings plaque index, PI; gingival index, GI; bleeding on probing, BOP; pus discharge, pus; and probing depth, PD at both PT-01 and control sites were measured at every visit for 4 weeks [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Periodontal Index


  1. Rapid identification of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque: comparison of indirect immunofluorescence microscopy with bacterial culture for detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Bonta, Y., Zambon, J.J., Genco, R.J., Neiders, M.E. J. Dent. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Periodontal disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Emrich, L.J., Shlossman, M., Genco, R.J. J. Periodontol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Association between periodontal pockets and elevated cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Katz, J., Flugelman, M.Y., Goldberg, A., Heft, M. J. Periodontol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Castration prevents calcium channel blocker-induced gingival hyperplasia in beagle dogs. Dayan, D., Kozlovsky, A., Tal, H., Kariv, N., Shemesh, M., Nyska, A. Human & experimental toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum fructosamine correlates with gingival index in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Firatli, E., Unal, T., Saka, N., Onan, U., Sivas, A., Oz, H. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Self-estimation of oral malodor. Rosenberg, M., Kozlovsky, A., Gelernter, I., Cherniak, O., Gabbay, J., Baht, R., Eli, I. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative efficacy of an antiseptic mouthrinse and an antiplaque/antigingivitis dentifrice. A six-month clinical trial. Charles, C.H., Sharma, N.C., Galustians, H.J., Qaqish, J., McGuire, J.A., Vincent, J.W. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Association between chronic periodontal disease and left ventricular hypertrophy in kidney transplant recipients. Franek, E., Blach, A., Witula, A., Kolonko, A., Chudek, J., Drugacz, J., Wiecek, A. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Collagenases in different categories of peri-implant vertical bone loss. Ma, J., Kitti, U., Teronen, O., Sorsa, T., Husa, V., Laine, P., Rönkä, H., Salo, T., Lindqvist, C., Konttinen, Y.T. J. Dent. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Long-term effects of Meridol and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque, gingivitis, staining, and bacterial vitality. Brecx, M., Macdonald, L.L., Legary, K., Cheang, M., Forgay, M.G. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of an experimental chewable antiplaque preparation containing chlorhexidine on plaque and gingival index scores. Nuuja, T.T., Murtomaa, H.T., Meurman, J.H., Pesonen, T.J. J. Dent. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of verapamil on the prevalence and severity of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in renal allograft recipients. Cebeci, I., Kantarci, A., Firatli, E., Carin, M., Tuncer, O. J. Periodontol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. The relationship between periodontal disease and blood glucose level among type II diabetic patients. Almas, K., Al-Qahtani, M., Al-Yami, M., Khan, N. The journal of contemporary dental practice [electronic resource]. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of periodontal therapy on intracrevicular prostaglandin E2 concentrations and clinical parameters in pregnancy. Yalcin, F., Basegmez, C., Isik, G., Berber, L., Eskinazi, E., Soydinc, M., Issever, H., Onan, U. J. Periodontol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of ascorbic acid depletion and supplementation on periodontal health and subgingival microflora in humans. Leggott, P.J., Robertson, P.B., Jacob, R.A., Zambon, J.J., Walsh, M., Armitage, G.C. J. Dent. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of folic acid on gingival health. Vogel, R.I., Fink, R.A., Schneider, L.C., Frank, O., Baker, H. J. Periodontol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Longitudinal evaluation of GCF IFN-gamma levels and periodontal status in HIV+ patients. Alpagot, T., Font, K., Lee, A. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Safety issues when using a 16% carbamide peroxide whitening solution. Leonard, R.H., Garland, G.E., Eagle, J.C., Caplan, D.J. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.] (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects on gingivitis of two different 0.4% SnF2 gels. Boyd, R.L., Leggott, P.J., Robertson, P.B. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation. Sculley, D.V., Langley-Evans, S.C. Clin. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Elevated blood glucose levels in patients with severe periodontal disease. Katz, J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of a dentifrice containing zinc citrate and Triclosan on developing gingivitis. Saxton, C.A., van der Ouderaa, F.J. J. Periodont. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Short-term responses to periodontal therapy in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Smith, G.T., Greenbaum, C.J., Johnson, B.D., Persson, G.R. J. Periodontol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The investigation of glutathione peroxidase, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1beta in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for oxidative stress in human periodontal diseases. Wei, P.F., Ho, K.Y., Ho, Y.P., Wu, Y.M., Yang, Y.H., Tsai, C.C. J. Periodont. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of smoking on clinical parameters and the gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in patients with chronic periodontitis. Erdemir, E.O., Duran, I., Haliloglu, S. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Changes in salivary components by drug administration in patients with heart diseases. Hirasaki, S., Yamazaki, T., Shiba, K. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Epidermal growth factor in gingival crevicular fluid and its binding capacity in inflamed and non-inflamed human gingiva. Chang, K.M., Lehrhaupt, N., Lin, L.M., Feng, J., Wu-Wang, C.Y., Wang, S.L. Arch. Oral Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Intrapocket chemotherapy in adult periodontitis using a new controlled-release insert containing ofloxacin (PT-01). Yamagami, H., Takamori, A., Sakamoto, T., Okada, H. J. Periodontol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Cross-sectional clinical study of quality of amalgam restorations, oral health and prevalence of recurrent caries. Eriksen, H.M., Bjertness, E., Hansen, B.F. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of levamisole on gingival inflammation in man. Ivanyi, L., Lehner, T. Scand. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. Gingival enlargement in children treated with antiepileptics. Tan, H., Gürbüz, T., Dağsuyu, I.M. J. Child Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. The influence of toothbrushing frequency and post-brushing rinsing on caries experience in a caries clinical trial. Chestnutt, I.G., Schäfer, F., Jacobson, A.P., Stephen, K.W. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Factors influencing the outcome of regenerative therapy in mandibular Class II furcations: Part I. Bowers, G.M., Schallhorn, R.G., McClain, P.K., Morrison, G.M., Morgan, R., Reynolds, M.A. J. Periodontol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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