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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

P 23     2,4,6-tritert-butylphenol

Synonyms: Voidox, Alkofen B, CHEMBL387905, TM02, ACMC-1BCWT, ...
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Disease relevance of P 23

  • P23 utilization is discernible in linear, glucosylated hydroxymethylcytosine-containing T4 virion DNA [1].
  • Conditions have been found under which more than 95% of the major head protein (P23) undergoes the same cleavage that occurs during development of the normal capsid [2].
  • We show here that in vitro transcription, primarily of plasmids carrying T4 genes 23 and 24, by RNA polymerase purified from Escherichia coli at late times after T4 infection allows specific initiation at P23 and P24 in the absence of DNA replication [1].
  • The risk for breast cancer did not increase with any of the following activities: 1) antiperspirant (OR = 0.9; P =.23) or deodorant (OR = 1.2; P =.19) use; 2) product use among subjects who shaved with a blade razor; or 3) application of products within 1 hour of shaving (for antiperspirant, OR = 0.9 and P =.40; for deodorant, OR = 1.2 and P =.16) [3].
  • P23 is of diagnostic interest as a marker of chronic toxoplasmosis and is proposed as a vaccine component [4].

Psychiatry related information on P 23

  • RESULTS: After a median of 14 months of follow-up, there was no significant risk reduction in the likelihood of a primary event with azithromycin vs placebo (7% [95% confidence interval, -5% to 17%], P =.23) [5].
  • P22, P23 and N24 components showed double peaks (P23a, P23b, N24a, N24b) during the NREM sleep stage in 6 subjects, while N24 showed a single peak and only P22 and P23 showed double peaks in 5 other subjects [6].

High impact information on P 23

  • Its transcriptional activity in vivo is regulated identically to a wild-type plasmid-borne P23, requiring the function of T4 genes essential for late transcription, but not requiring T4 DNA replication [7].
  • We performed a deletion analysis to identify the minimal DNA sequence required for the function of the T4 late promoter, P23 [7].
  • Relaxation of plasmid DNA containing P23 (with topoisomerase I) reduces P23 utilization at low salt (50 mM Na+) and nearly abolishes it at high salt (250 mM Na+) [1].
  • The utilization of P23 and P24 in vitro is sharply inhibited by NaCl concentrations greater than 100 mM, and this inhibition is partly reversed by the addition of 10% DMSO [1].
  • Among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 30%, however, preoperative beta-blocker therapy was associated with a trend toward a higher mortality rate (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.96-1.33; P =.23) [8].

Biological context of P 23

  • We have previously identified T4 late promoters governing the in vivo expression of T4 late genes 23 and 24 (P23 and P24) [1].
  • Platelet counts recovered more slowly among patients with the TT genotype compared to wild type (24% slower recovery to 10 000 platelets/microL, P =.23; 34% slower to 20 000/microL, P =.08) [9].
  • The most significant differences between the two operons are observed in the molecular size of the first genes (P23 and rpsU), the complete lack of amino acid homology between P23 and S21, the molecular weights of the two rpoD genes, the size of the intercistronic region between the first two genes, and the regulatory elements of the operon [10].
  • (4) Overexpression of P23 results in cell growth retardation and in alterations of cell morphology [11].
  • Here, we present evidence that P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein that associates with microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner [11].

Anatomical context of P 23

  • However, in the RCS rats there was a rapid fall in the quantity of IRBP as the photoreceptors degenerated between P23 and P29 [12].
  • The peptide maps of the following samples are presented as examples: protein P23 and P23* of bacteriophage T4, membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum, membranes of human erythrocytes, and 35S-labeled proteins of D. discoideum synthesized in vivo or in a cell-free wheat germ extract [13].
  • Moreover, elevation of P23 levels leads to microtubule rearrangements and to an increase in microtubule mass and stability [11].
  • The translationally controlled protein P23 was discovered by the early induction of its rate of synthesis after mitogenic stimulation of mouse fibroblasts [11].
  • A fourth trypsinogen (P23) in the rat pancreas induced by CCK [14].

Associations of P 23 with other chemical compounds

  • The extract obtained from the surface of green leaves of oriental tobacco type Prilep P-23 contains sucrose esters and is effective against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in laboratory and field experiments [15].
  • Fetal plasma folate and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T genotype had no significant effects (P =.23 and P =.54, respectively), probably because of folic acid supplement use [16].
  • Here we demonstrate that TNF alpha treatment of U937 cells increased tyrosine phosphorylation of a 23-kDa nuclear protein (P23) maximally by 13-fold, which occurred after 2.5 h treatment concomitantly with occurrence of DNA fragmentation [17].
  • Unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum on P2 resulted in up-regulation of H3 receptor binding sites in the dorsomedial (11%) and dorsolateral (18%) regions of the striatum and substantia nigra (31%) on P23, but no change in the H3 receptor density in the nucleus accumbens or frontal cortex on P11 and P23 [18].
  • SEPs recorded from C4, P4, Pz, T6-A1A2 derivations to left median nerve stimulation were composed of 2 early negative (N16, N20) and 2 positive components (P12, P23), whereas those recorded from frontal electrodes (Fz, Fp1, Fp2) disclosed 2 early negativities (N16, N24) and 2 early positivities (P12, P20) [19].

Gene context of P 23

  • The dnaE codes for DNA primase while the function of P23 remains unknown [10].
  • Hence, our results demonstrate that the mRNA of P23/TCTP may both activate PKR and be subject to translational regulation by this kinase [20].
  • No significant difference in vitreous VEGF concentration was seen between CNV/AMD samples and control samples (P =.23) [21].
  • These lysosomal bodies occupied the perikarya of almost all neurons in CD-/- mouse brains obtained from P23 until the terminal stage [22].
  • Secondary structure predictions and gel electrophoretic mobility investigations on P23/TCTP transcripts confirmed the potential of this mRNA to form extensive secondary structure [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of P 23

  • In intention-to-treat analyses, estimated 3-year relapse-free survival rates were 62% and 48% for FAC and FAC/high-dose chemotherapy, respectively (P =.35), and 3-year survival rates were 77% and 58%, respectively (P =.23) [23].
  • The purified U2 assemblies contained six polypeptides of molecular weights corresponding to those defined by immunoprecipitation to be common to U1 and U2 snRNPs including P23, P22, P12, P10, P9, and P8 [24].
  • Sequence analysis revealed significant differences in both coding and downstream untranslated regions between the cDNA sequences corresponding to the viroid-induced P23 and the salt stress-induced NP24 proteins [25].
  • Two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping showed that GP36, GP31, GP28, and P23 comprise a group of closely related proteins which we have designated the "P23 family," but that the other proteins are distinct [26].
  • We conclude that IgA MAbs directed to neutralization-sensitive P23 epitopes may have utility in passive immunization against murine C. parvum infection [27].


  1. Initiation of transcription at phage T4 late promoters with purified RNA polymerase. Kassavetis, G.A., Elliott, T., Rabussay, D.P., Geiduschek, E.P. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Correlation between structural transformation and cleavage of the major head protein of T4 bacteriophage. Laemmli, U.K., Amos, L.A., Klug, A. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Mirick, D.K., Davis, S., Thomas, D.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular characterization of a 23-kilodalton major antigen secreted by Toxoplasma gondii. Cesbron-Delauw, M.F., Guy, B., Torpier, G., Pierce, R.J., Lenzen, G., Cesbron, J.Y., Charif, H., Lepage, P., Darcy, F., Lecocq, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease events: the WIZARD study: a randomized controlled trial. O'Connor, C.M., Dunne, M.W., Pfeffer, M.A., Muhlestein, J.B., Yao, L., Gupta, S., Benner, R.J., Fisher, M.R., Cook, T.D. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of sleep stage on somatosensory evoked potentials by median nerve stimulation. Nakano, S., Tsuji, S., Matsunaga, K., Murai, Y. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Defining a bacteriophage T4 late promoter: absence of a "-35" region. Elliott, T., Geiduschek, E.P. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Preoperative beta-blocker use and mortality and morbidity following CABG surgery in North America. Ferguson, T.B., Coombs, L.P., Peterson, E.D. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacogenetics of methotrexate: toxicity among marrow transplantation patients varies with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. Ulrich, C.M., Yasui, Y., Storb, R., Schubert, M.M., Wagner, J.L., Bigler, J., Ariail, K.S., Keener, C.L., Li, S., Liu, H., Farin, F.M., Potter, J.D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence and organization of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase major sigma (sigma 43) operon. Wang, L.F., Doi, R.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. The growth-related, translationally controlled protein P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein and associates transiently with microtubules during the cell cycle. Gachet, Y., Tournier, S., Lee, M., Lazaris-Karatzas, A., Poulton, T., Bommer, U.A. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. An extracellular retinol-binding glycoprotein in the eyes of mutant rats with retinal dystrophy: development, localization, and biosynthesis. Gonzalez-Fernandez, F., Landers, R.A., Glazebrook, P.A., Fong, S.L., Liou, G.I., Lam, D.M., Bridges, C.D. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Peptide mapping of heterogeneous protein samples. Bordier, C., Crettol-Järvinen, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. A fourth trypsinogen (P23) in the rat pancreas induced by CCK. Lütcke, H., Rausch, U., Vasiloudes, P., Scheele, G.A., Kern, H.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of sucrose esters--insecticides from the surface of tobacco plant leaves. Simonovska, B., Srbinoska, M., Vovk, I. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Maternal and fetal plasma homocysteine concentrations at birth: the influence of folate, vitamin B12, and the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T variant. Molloy, A.M., Mills, J.L., McPartlin, J., Kirke, P.N., Scott, J.M., Daly, S. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases tyrosine phosphorylation of a 23-kDa nuclear protein in U937 cells through ceramide signaling pathway. Ji, L., Zhang, G., Hirabayashi, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Ontogenetic development of histamine receptor subtypes in rat brain demonstrated by quantitative autoradiography. Ryu, J.H., Yanai, K., Sakurai, E., Kim, C.Y., Watanabe, T. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Scalp topography and distribution of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Tsuji, S., Murai, Y. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. The mRNA of the translationally controlled tumor protein P23/TCTP is a highly structured RNA, which activates the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. Bommer, U.A., Borovjagin, A.V., Greagg, M.A., Jeffrey, I.W., Russell, P., Laing, K.G., Lee, M., Clemens, M.J. RNA (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Pigment epithelium-derived factor is deficient in the vitreous of patients with choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration. Holekamp, N.M., Bouck, N., Volpert, O. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Cathepsin D deficiency induces lysosomal storage with ceroid lipofuscin in mouse CNS neurons. Koike, M., Nakanishi, H., Saftig, P., Ezaki, J., Isahara, K., Ohsawa, Y., Schulz-Schaeffer, W., Watanabe, T., Waguri, S., Kametaka, S., Shibata, M., Yamamoto, K., Kominami, E., Peters, C., von Figura, K., Uchiyama, Y. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Randomized trial of high-dose chemotherapy and blood cell autografts for high-risk primary breast carcinoma. Hortobagyi, G.N., Buzdar, A.U., Theriault, R.L., Valero, V., Frye, D., Booser, D.J., Holmes, F.A., Giralt, S., Khouri, I., Andersson, B., Gajewski, J.L., Rondon, G., Smith, T.L., Singletary, S.E., Ames, F.C., Sneige, N., Strom, E.A., McNeese, M.D., Deisseroth, A.B., Champlin, R.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Fractionation and characterization of human small nuclear ribonucleoproteins containing U1 and U2 RNAs. Kinlaw, C.S., Robberson, B.L., Berget, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. cDNA cloning of viroid-induced tomato pathogenesis-related protein P23. Characterization as a vacuolar antifungal factor. Rodrigo, I., Vera, P., Tornero, P., Hernández-Yago, J., Conejero, V. Plant Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Structural analysis of virion proteins of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Stern, D.F., Burgess, L., Sefton, B.M. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of immunoglobulin A monoclonal antibodies against P23 in controlling murine Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Enriquez, F.J., Riggs, M.W. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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