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Gene Review

PTGES3  -  prostaglandin E synthase 3 (cytosolic)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase, Hsp90 co-chaperone, P23, Progesterone receptor complex p23, Prostaglandin E synthase 3, ...
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Disease relevance of PTGES3

  • The peptide maps of the following samples are presented as examples: protein P23 and P23* of bacteriophage T4, membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum, membranes of human erythrocytes, and 35S-labeled proteins of D. discoideum synthesized in vivo or in a cell-free wheat germ extract [1].
  • A 23-kD pathogenesis-related protein (P23) is induced in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv Rutgers) plants when infected with citrus exocortis viroid [2].
  • The unit cell exhibits cubic symmetry with a = 422 A. The space group is P23, with four virus particles situated on crystallographic threefold axes [3].
  • The effects of these mutations on polyprotein processing were studied by in vitro translation and by expression of wild-type polyproteins P1234, P123, P23, P34 and their mutated counterparts in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses [4].
  • In conclusion, mPGES-1, cPGES, and mPGES-2 are all expressed in gastric ulcer tissue, but only mPGES-1 parallels COX-2 expression in mesenchymal and inflammatory cells of the ulcer bed, suggesting a key role for this enzyme in the ulcer repair process [5].

Psychiatry related information on PTGES3

  • P22, P23 and N24 components showed double peaks (P23a, P23b, N24a, N24b) during the NREM sleep stage in 6 subjects, while N24 showed a single peak and only P22 and P23 showed double peaks in 5 other subjects [6].

High impact information on PTGES3


Biological context of PTGES3

  • Transient transfection experiments in human 293 cells showed that coexpression of full-length P23 mRNA leads to partial inhibition of the expression of a beta-galactosidase reporter gene in trans [11].
  • Our results suggest that mPGES could play a role in trophoblast invasion via its association with EVTs in the basal plate, whereas cPGES could be involved in apoptosis or repair mechanisms [12].
  • In the course of replication the specific interaction of the TEBP with components of the nuclear matrix is resolved and an attachment of the telomeres to the matrix no longer occurs [13].
  • Western blot analysis of the amnion and choriodecidua showed no differences in amounts of either cPGES or mPGES at term or preterm, with or without labor, in either tissue with advancing gestation [14].
  • For the NFS, cyclic loading increased the average cell density to 9884 +/- 893 cells/mm(2), 9818 +/- 1091 cells/mm(2), 9355 +/- 661 cells/mm(2), representing 44%, 46% and 40% increases at P17, P23, and P32 respectively [15].

Anatomical context of PTGES3


Associations of PTGES3 with chemical compounds

  • P23-coding cDNA clones were isolated from viroid-induced and ethylene-induced libraries [2].
  • In cultures exposed to canavanine, the rates of accumulation of P88 and P71,72 increased from basal to new plateau levels in about 1.5 hours, while P23 required about 2.5 hours [19].
  • Fentanyl increased N20 and P23 latency and decreased the amplitude of P15-N20 [20].
  • Recent studies have identified three PGE synthase (PGES) isozymes: cytosolic PGES (cPGES) and microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1 and -2, but little is known regarding the expression and roles of these enzymes in gastric fibroblasts [21].
  • Here we demonstrate that TNF alpha treatment of U937 cells increased tyrosine phosphorylation of a 23-kDa nuclear protein (P23) maximally by 13-fold, which occurred after 2.5 h treatment concomitantly with occurrence of DNA fragmentation [22].

Other interactions of PTGES3

  • Thus, the action of p23 on the nuclear stage of GR regulation requires its Hsp90 co-chaperone function, but not its chaperone activity [23].
  • Secondary structure predictions and gel electrophoretic mobility investigations on P23/TCTP transcripts confirmed the potential of this mRNA to form extensive secondary structure [11].
  • Functional characterizations indicate that VCP is not an Hsp90 substrate, but rather demonstrate the biochemical hallmarks of an Hsp90 co-chaperone [24].
  • Intracellular dynamics of the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 is dictated by Hsp90 [25].
  • We show mPGES-1 protein located predominantly in myometrial and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), whilst mPGES-2 protein is largely in stromal cells surrounding the SMC and cPGES is diffusely located throughout the myometrium [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTGES3

  • The purified U2 assemblies contained six polypeptides of molecular weights corresponding to those defined by immunoprecipitation to be common to U1 and U2 snRNPs including P23, P22, P12, P10, P9, and P8 [27].
  • Sequence analysis revealed significant differences in both coding and downstream untranslated regions between the cDNA sequences corresponding to the viroid-induced P23 and the salt stress-induced NP24 proteins [2].
  • The TTS tested were P23 ID with 5 feet tubing (P23-5'), P23 ID with 6 inches tubing (P23-6") and P50A transducer with no tubing (P50) [28].
  • Sequence alignment revealed that tomato P23 is the previously described NP24 protein found to be associated to osmotic stress in tomato [29].
  • On the other hand, mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) that are functionally coupled with COX-1 were upregulated after treatment with PS liposomes or LPS [30].


  1. Peptide mapping of heterogeneous protein samples. Bordier, C., Crettol-Järvinen, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. cDNA cloning of viroid-induced tomato pathogenesis-related protein P23. Characterization as a vacuolar antifungal factor. Rodrigo, I., Vera, P., Tornero, P., Hernández-Yago, J., Conejero, V. Plant Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of the Mengo virion. VII. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. Boege, U., Scraba, D.G., Hayakawa, K., James, M.N., Erickson, J.W. Virology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Proteolytic processing of Semliki Forest virus-specific non-structural polyprotein by nsP2 protease. Merits, A., Vasiljeva, L., Ahola, T., Kääriäinen, L., Auvinen, P. J. Gen. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1, mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGES expression in human gastritis and gastric ulcer tissue. Gudis, K., Tatsuguchi, A., Wada, K., Futagami, S., Nagata, K., Hiratsuka, T., Shinji, Y., Miyake, K., Tsukui, T., Fukuda, Y., Sakamoto, C. Lab. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of sleep stage on somatosensory evoked potentials by median nerve stimulation. Nakano, S., Tsuji, S., Matsunaga, K., Murai, Y. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. An extracellular retinol-binding glycoprotein in the eyes of mutant rats with retinal dystrophy: development, localization, and biosynthesis. Gonzalez-Fernandez, F., Landers, R.A., Glazebrook, P.A., Fong, S.L., Liou, G.I., Lam, D.M., Bridges, C.D. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Phosphorylation of serine 13 is required for the proper function of the Hsp90 co-chaperone, Cdc37. Shao, J., Prince, T., Hartson, S.D., Matts, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytoplasmic prostaglandin E2 synthase is dominantly expressed in cultured KAT-50 thyrocytes, cells that express constitutive prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2. Basis for low protaglandin E2 production. Han, R., Smith, T.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. Tanioka, T., Nakatani, Y., Semmyo, N., Murakami, M., Kudo, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The mRNA of the translationally controlled tumor protein P23/TCTP is a highly structured RNA, which activates the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. Bommer, U.A., Borovjagin, A.V., Greagg, M.A., Jeffrey, I.W., Russell, P., Laing, K.G., Lee, M., Clemens, M.J. RNA (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential localization of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human placental cell types. Meadows, J.W., Pitzer, B., Brockman, D.E., Myatt, L. Placenta (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Association of the telomere-telomere-binding protein complex of hypotrichous ciliates with the nuclear matrix and dissociation during replication. Postberg, J., Juranek, S.A., Feiler, S., Kortwig, H., Jönsson, F., Lipps, H.J. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression and localization of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human fetal membranes in term and preterm labor. Meadows, J.W., Eis, A.L., Brockman, D.E., Myatt, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Geometry and cell density of rat craniofacial sutures during early postnatal development and upon in vivo cyclic loading. Vij, K., Mao, J.J. Bone (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of the p23/p198 protein with ErbB-3. Yoo, J.Y., Hamburger, A.W. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Partial preservation of rod and cone ERG function following subretinal injection of ARPE-19 cells in RCS rats. Sauvé, Y., Pinilla, I., Lund, R.D. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Glucocorticoids induce cytosolic phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin H synthase type 2 but not microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and cytosolic PGES expression in cultured primary human amnion cells. Sun, K., Ma, R., Cui, X., Campos, B., Webster, R., Brockman, D., Myatt, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Cultured animal cells exposed to amino acid analogues or puromycin rapidly synthesize several polypeptides. Hightower, L.E. J. Cell. Physiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of thiopental, fentanyl, and etomidate on upper extremity somatosensory evoked potentials in humans. McPherson, R.W., Sell, B., Traystman, R.J. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Induced microsomal PGE synthase-1 is involved in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent PGE2 production in gastric fibroblasts. Shinji, Y., Tsukui, T., Tatsuguchi, A., Shinoki, K., Kusunoki, M., Suzuki, K., Hiratsuka, T., Wada, K., Futagami, S., Miyake, K., Gudis, K., Sakamoto, C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases tyrosine phosphorylation of a 23-kDa nuclear protein in U937 cells through ceramide signaling pathway. Ji, L., Zhang, G., Hirabayashi, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of GR-mediated transcription by p23 requires interaction with Hsp90. Wochnik, G.M., Young, J.C., Schmidt, U., Holsboer, F., Hartl, F.U., Rein, T. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence for chaperone heterocomplexes containing both Hsp90 and VCP. Prince, T., Shao, J., Matts, R.L., Hartson, S.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Intracellular dynamics of the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 is dictated by Hsp90. Picard, D. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human myometrium with labour. Astle, S., Newton, R., Thornton, S., Vatish, M., Slater, D.M. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Fractionation and characterization of human small nuclear ribonucleoproteins containing U1 and U2 RNAs. Kinlaw, C.S., Robberson, B.L., Berget, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of the dynamic response of transducer-tubing system on accuracy of direct blood pressure measurement in patients. Boutros, A., Albert, S. Crit. Care Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of the viroid-induced tomato pathogenesis-related (PR) protein P23 as the thaumatin-like tomato protein NP24 associated with osmotic stress. Rodrigo, I., Vera, P., Frank, R., Conejero, V. Plant Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Involvement of COX-1 and up-regulated prostaglandin E synthases in phosphatidylserine liposome-induced prostaglandin E2 production by microglia. Zhang, J., Fujii, S., Wu, Z., Hashioka, S., Tanaka, Y., Shiratsuchi, A., Nakanishi, Y., Nakanishi, H. J. Neuroimmunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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