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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Proxigel     hydrogen peroxide; urea

Synonyms: Hyperol, Ortizon, Perhydrit, Thenardol, Debrox, ...
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Disease relevance of Thenardol


High impact information on Thenardol


Chemical compound and disease context of Thenardol


Biological context of Thenardol


Anatomical context of Thenardol

  • There has been recent concern about the inadvertent exposure of dentin with patent tubules as well as gingiva to bleaching systems containing 10-15% carbamide peroxide or 2-10% hydrogen peroxide for more than a few minutes [5].
  • CONCLUSION: Carbamide peroxide (10%) caused an augmentation in the proliferative activity within the basal and parabasal layers of the gingival epithelium, resulting in a change in this tissue's morphometry [15].
  • The cytotoxicity of carbamide peroxide, as related to oxidative stress, was evaluated in vitro with several human cell lines, including Smulow-Glickman (S-G) gingival epithelial cells [10].
  • Previous work in our laboratory showed that a bleaching agent, which generates approximately 3% H2O2 from carbamide peroxide, was toxic to human gingival fibroblasts in vitro, but that the toxicity was abolished by treatment with the H2O2-destroying enzyme catalase [16].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five extracted human incisors were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence) for 4 h/day for 1 week and were compared with non-bleached teeth for oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus relative concentration using EDS [17].

Associations of Thenardol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Thenardol

  • A three-cell, randomized, parallel, investigator-blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three professional at-home tooth whitening systems, including Crest Professional Whitestrips (6.5% H2O2), Day White 2 (7.5% H2O2) and Nite White Excel 2 (16% carbamide peroxide equivalent) [21].
  • Effects of a bleaching agent containing 35% carbamide peroxide on the immunolocalization of cyclin D and p16 [22].
  • This study evaluated the effects of 35% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence Quick) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra) on the surface finish of four tooth-colored restorative materials (Spectrum TPH, Dyract AP, Reactmer and Fuji II LC) [23].
  • The hardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, hybrid, polyacid-modified and PRG composites is therefore not significantly affected by the use of 35% carbamide peroxide and 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office tooth whiteners [24].
  • The two products were the test toothpaste (RCP) containing 0.5% SCN- (rhodanide), carbamide peroxide (equivalent 0.1% H2O2), and 1450 p.p.m. fluoride, and a control toothpaste (Colgate Total) containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% polyvinyl methyl ether maleic acid (PVM/MA), and 1450 p.p.m. fluoride (Triclosan) [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thenardol

  • The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of a commercially available tooth-bleaching agent and carbamide peroxide, which is the active bleaching ingredient [1].
  • ZT was not affected by bleaching treatment, while FT was significantly roughened after one week of bleaching with 15% CP compared to the control group [25].
  • Qualitative comparisons of resin tags present in the bleached and unbleached specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed few, thin and fragmented resin tags when 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were used [26].
  • METHODS: The front teeth of 30 subjects were bleached at home with 10%, 17% or 0% (control) carbamide peroxide for 1 week in a double-blind study design [27].
  • METHODS: 2x2x20mm bovine dentin specimens were immersed in the bleaching agents to simulate overnight (10 or 15% CP, 6h daily, 2 weeks), exaggerated overnight (10% CP, 6h/day, 5 days/week, 2 months), daytime (6.5 or 7.5% HP, 1h daily, 3 weeks) and in-office (35% HP, 1h/day, 2 days/week, 3 weeks) treatment protocols [28].


  1. Acute toxicity of carbamide peroxide and a commercially available tooth-bleaching agent in rats. Dahl, J.E., Becher, R. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Urea hydrogen peroxide reduces the numbers of lactobacilli, nourishes yeast, and leaves no residues in the ethanol fermentation. Narendranath, N.V., Thomas, K.C., Ingledew, W.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Simultaneous bleaching of vital teeth and an open-chamber nonvital tooth with 10% carbamide peroxide. Carrillo, A., Arredondo Trevino, M.V., Haywood, V.B. Quintessence international. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative seven-day clinical evaluation of two tooth whitening products. Nathoo, S., Santana, E., Zhang, Y.P., Lin, N., Collins, M., Klimpel, K., DeVizio, W., Giniger, M. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995) (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytotoxicity and dentin permeability of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide vital bleaching materials, in vitro. Hanks, C.T., Fat, J.C., Wataha, J.C., Corcoran, J.F. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Acute toxicological effects of ingested tooth whiteners in female rats. Cherry, D.V., Bowers, D.E., Thomas, L., Redmond, A.F. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching. Fugaro, J.O., Nordahl, I., Fugaro, O.J., Matis, B.A., Mjör, I.A. Operative dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Intracoronal bleaching of discolored non-vital teeth. Bizhang, M., Heiden, A., Blunck, U., Zimmer, S., Seemann, R., Roulet, J.F. Operative dentistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. An overview of Gly-Oxide liquid in control and prevention of dental disease. Stindt, D.J., Quenette, L. Compendium (Newtown, Pa.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Oxidative stress aspects of the cytotoxicity of carbamide peroxide: in vitro studies. Sinensky, M.C., Leiser, A.L., Babich, H. Toxicol. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Biological properties of peroxide-containing tooth whiteners. Li, Y. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Fluoride uptake and development of artificial erosions in bleached and fluoridated enamel in vitro. Burgmaier, G.M., Schulze, I.M., Attin, T. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Carbamide peroxide bleaching of teeth with dentinogenesis imperfecta discoloration: report of a case. Croll, T.P., Sasa, I.S. Quintessence international. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Experimental study to test the potential tumor promotion effect of a tooth bleaching agent. Collet, A.M., Palmieri, M., Molinari, B., Schwint, A.E., Itoiz, M.E. Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of home bleaching and smoking on marginal gingival epithelium proliferation: a histologic study in women. da Costa Filho, L.C., da Costa, C.C., Sória, M.L., Taga, R. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of saliva and salivary components as modulators of bleaching agent toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Tipton, D.A., Braxton, S.D., Dabbous, M.K. J. Periodontol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Ultra-morphological study of the interaction of dental adhesives with carbamide peroxide-bleached enamel. Perdigão, J., Francci, C., Swift, E.J., Ambrose, W.W., Lopes, M. American journal of dentistry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Susceptibility of enamel surfaces to demineralization after application of fluoridated carbamide peroxide gels. Attin, T., Kocabiyik, M., Buchalla, W., Hannig, C., Becker, K. Caries Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of a SCN-/H2O2 toothpaste compared to a commercially available triclosan-containing toothpaste on oral hygiene and gingival health -- a 6-month home-use study. Rosin, M., Kramer, A., Bradtke, D., Richter, G., Kocher, T. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Histochemical analysis of dental hard tissues following bleaching. Rotstein, I., Dankner, E., Goldman, A., Heling, I., Stabholz, A., Zalkind, M. Journal of endodontics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of clinical efficacy and safety of three professional at-home tooth whitening systems. Li, Y., Lee, S.S., Cartwright, S.L., Wilson, A.C. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995) (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of a bleaching agent containing 35% carbamide peroxide on the immunolocalization of cyclin D and p16. Gomez, R.S., de Castro Albuquerque, R., Dutra, R.A., Vasconcellos, W.A., Reis, D.A., Gomez, R.S., Gomez, M.V. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of in-office bleaching products on surface finish of tooth-colored restorations. Wattanapayungkul, P., Yap, A.U. Operative dentistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of in-office tooth whiteners on hardness of tooth-colored restoratives. Yap, A.U., Wattanapayungkul, P. Operative dentistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. The effect of home bleaching agents on the surface roughness of tooth-colored restoratives with time. Wattanapayungkul, P., Yap, A.U., Chooi, K.W., Lee, M.F., Selamat, R.S., Zhou, R.D. Operative dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Immediate bonding to bleached enamel. Nour El-din, A.K., Miller, B.H., Griggs, J.A., Wakefield, C. Operative dentistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Spectrophotometric and visual evaluation of vital tooth bleaching employing different carbamide peroxide concentrations. Braun, A., Jepsen, S., Krause, F. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of direct peroxide bleach application to bovine dentin on flexural strength and modulus in vitro. Tam, L.E., Lim, M., Khanna, S. Journal of dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
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