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Chemical Compound Review

carbamide     urea

Synonyms: Aquacare, Calmurid, Karbamid, Mocovina, Pastaron, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of carbamide

  • Carbamimic acid ester as an inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 [1].
  • He was studied at 2 years of age because of polyurea and polydipsia of one year's duration and was found to have hypokalaemic alkalosis and sustained hypertension [2].
  • Fatigue, neuropsychiatric disorders, memory loss, nocturia, and polyurea were more common in patients with sHPT (p < 0.05), whereas pain in joints was more common in patients with rHPT (63 versus 52 percent; p < 0.001) [3].
  • OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesised from an epidemiological investigation that a formula change from Acramin FWR (a polyurea) to Acramin FWN (a polyamide-amine) had led to severe pulmonary disease in textile printing sprayers in SPAIN AND ALGERIA [4].
  • Carbamide-containing polyol chewing gum and prevention of dental caries in schoolchildren in Madagascar [5].
 

High impact information on carbamide

  • Antihistamine reduced the flushing response by 40% and decreased the pulse rate from 40 minutes onward after ethanol infusion subsequent to calcium carbamide dosing [6].
  • In conclusion, we found that neither reduction of the individual amide linkages between residues 6-11 and 12-13 nor introduction of a carbamide moiety in lieu of the side chain of Ser7 led to CRF antagonists [7].
  • The fibronectin-binding protein was released from fibronectin-Sepharose by carbamide (8 M) [8].
  • Pharmacological and Behavioral Profile of N-(4-Fluorophenylmethyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(4-(2-methylpropyloxy)phenylmethyl) Carbamide (2R,3R)-Dihydroxybutanedioate (2:1) (ACP-103), a Novel 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Inverse Agonist [9].
  • Transfer hydrogenation using recyclable polyurea-encapsulated palladium: efficient and chemoselective reduction of aryl ketones [10].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of carbamide

  • Biochemical changes in urine (a low osmolality, low concentrations of carbamide and creatinine, and extremely low sodium concentrations) and in plasma (aldosteronism) similar to those found in nursing sickness were elicited in the nursing dams [11].
 

Biological context of carbamide

 

Anatomical context of carbamide

  • The concentration of free AA and U in the postabsorptive region of the intestine (cecum) of rats consuming antibiotics was greater than when antibiotics were not consumed [17].
  • Hemolysate-filled polyethyleneimine and polyurea microcapsules as potential red blood cell substitutes: effect of aqueous monomer type on properties of the prepared microcapsules [18].
  • The purpose of this study was to record the time-course diffusion of hydrogen peroxide through human dentin from a peroxide carbamide gel designed for the walking bleach technique in order to determine its optimal renewal time [19].
  • Glucose oxidase was microencapsulated within polyurea membranes by the interfacial polymerization method and the stability to heat of the encapsulated enzyme was examined [20].
 

Associations of carbamide with other chemical compounds

  • Microencapsulation of osmium tetroxide in polyurea [21].
  • Palladium(II) acetate microencapsulated in polyurea (MC-[Pd]) is an economical and versatile heterogeneous catalyst for a range of phosphine-free cross-coupling reactions in both conventional solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2); the catalyst can be recovered by a simple filtration and recycled up to four times [22].
  • Finally, the hydrolysis reaction of cyanamide or carbodiimide leading to urea or isourea formation is not observed under our experimental conditions [23].
  • The bioconversion of progesterone to 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with these polyurea-coating alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus cells was investigated using different organic solvents in biphasic media [24].
  • Liver enzymes, serum creatinine and carbamide levels in each case were within the normal range (G0) [25].
  • To further validate the direct interaction model we show that, in urea and guanidinium chloride solutions, unfolding of an unusually stable helix (H1) from mouse PrPC (residues 144-153) occurs by hydrogen bonding of denaturants to charged side chains and backbone carbonyl groups [26].
  • In this procedure, urea plays a double role as a nitrogen/carbon source and stabilizing agent (necessary for the nanoparticle dispersion) [27].
  • Urea uptake was less efficient than nitrate uptake, and urea grown-plants presented signs of N starvation [28].
 

Gene context of carbamide

  • Expressed relative to the output of carbamide the output of urinary EGF IR increased with a median factor of 2 following the run [29].
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of potent glycosidase inhibitors: N-phenyl cyclic isourea derivatives of 5-amino- and 5-amino-C-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetraols [30].
  • The freezing behaviour of water in polyurea microcapsules was studied through DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and ESR (electron spin resonance) measurements under a non-equilibrium condition to show that supercooling of water becomes more noticeable with decreasing droplet size of the liquid [31].
  • Influx of 15N-labeled urea in atdur3-1 and atdur3-3 showed a linear concentration dependency up to 200 microM external urea, whereas influx in wild-type roots followed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km of 4 microM [32].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of carbamide

  • During the intramuscular injections the volunteers felt only localized pain; some reported drowsiness, increased thirst and polyurea [33].
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that tooth bleaching with carbamide (urea) peroxide (using commercially available concentrations) does not increase the susceptibility of enamel to acid erosion or caries [34].
  • Conclusion: It was verified that the dentifrices containing carbamide or hydrogen peroxide along with alumina + silica and calcium carbonate, respectively (groups 4 and 5), produced minor changes in Ra when compared with the control group and with those dentifrices containing bicarbonate (groups 2 and 3) [35].
  • The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect on dental caries experience of using carbamide polyol chewing gum as a supplement to standard oral hygiene procedures for schoolchildren in a developing country (Madagascar) [5].

References

  1. Carbamimic acid ester as an inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715. Warner, V.D., Lynch, D.M. J. Dent. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency: a possible cause of intrauterine growth retardation. Kitanaka, S., Tanae, A., Hibi, I. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Primary hyperparathyroidism in patients who have received radiation therapy and in patients who have not received radiation therapy. Tezelman, S., Rodriguez, J.M., Shen, W., Siperstein, A.E., Duh, Q.Y., Clark, O.H. J. Am. Coll. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Pulmonary toxicity of components of textile paint linked to the Ardystil syndrome: intratracheal administration in hamsters. Clottens, F.L., Verbeken, E.K., Demedts, M., Nemery, B. Occupational and environmental medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Carbamide-containing polyol chewing gum and prevention of dental caries in schoolchildren in Madagascar. Petersen, P.E., Razanamihaja, N. International dental journal. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Diphenhydramine and the calcium carbimide-ethanol reaction: a placebo-controlled clinical study. Stowell, A., Johnsen, J., Ripel, A., Mørland, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) agonists with reduced amide bonds and Ser7 substitutions. Cervini, L., Theobald, P., Corrigan, A., Craig, A.G., Rivier, C., Vale, W., Rivier, J. J. Med. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus. Espersen, F., Clemmensen, I. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacological and Behavioral Profile of N-(4-Fluorophenylmethyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(4-(2-methylpropyloxy)phenylmethyl) Carbamide (2R,3R)-Dihydroxybutanedioate (2:1) (ACP-103), a Novel 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Inverse Agonist. Vanover, K.E., Weiner, D.M., Makhay, M., Veinbergs, I., Gardell, L.R., Lameh, J., Del Tredici, A.L., Piu, F., Schiffer, H.H., Ott, T.R., Burstein, E.S., Uldam, A.K., Thygesen, M.B., Schlienger, N., Andersson, C.M., Son, T.Y., Harvey, S.C., Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Tolf, B.R., Brann, M.R., Davis, R.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Transfer hydrogenation using recyclable polyurea-encapsulated palladium: efficient and chemoselective reduction of aryl ketones. Yu, J.Q., Wu, H.C., Ramarao, C., Spencer, J.B., Ley, S.V. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Failure of loop diuretics to induce nursing sickness in mink at weaning. Hansen, O., Wamberg, S., Clausen, T.N. Can. J. Vet. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydrolytic stability of toluene diisocyanate and polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate based polyureas under environmental conditions. Sendijarevic, V., Sendijarevic, A., Sendijarevic, I., Bailey, R.E., Pemberton, D., Reimann, K.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis of methyl alpha-L-vancosaminide. Smith, G.R., Giuliano, R.M. Carbohydr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Blood-reduced glutathione, serum ceruloplasmin and mineral changes in juvenile diabetes. Awadallah, R., El-Dessoukey, E.A., Doss, H., Khalifa, K., el-Hawary, Z. Zeitschrift für Ernährungswissenschaft. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Termination of hypertensive pregnancies with intra-amniotic urevert. Roopnarinesingh, S. The West Indian medical journal. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. The activation of intravascular coagulation by bromocarbamide. Neuhof, H., Sablofski, I., Wilhelmi, J., Hey, D., Lasch, H.G. International journal of clinical pharmacology and biopharmacy. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Maintenance nitrogen requirements and intestinal microorganisms in rats. Nipper, W.A., Burroughs, W., Trenkle, A. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Hemolysate-filled polyethyleneimine and polyurea microcapsules as potential red blood cell substitutes: effect of aqueous monomer type on properties of the prepared microcapsules. El-Gibaly, I., Anwar, M. International journal of pharmaceutics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Time-course diffusion of hydrogen peroxide through human dentin: clinical significance for young tooth internal bleaching. Camps, J., de Franceschi, H., Idir, F., Roland, C., About, I. Journal of endodontics (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. A study on the thermostability of microencapsulated glucose oxidase. Hoshino, K., Muramatsu, N., Kondo, T. Journal of microencapsulation. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Microencapsulation of osmium tetroxide in polyurea. Ley, S.V., Ramarao, C., Lee, A.L., Østergaard, N., Smith, S.C., Shirley, I.M. Org. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Polyurea-encapsulated palladium(II) acetate: a robust and recyclable catalyst for use in conventional and supercritical media. Ley, S.V., Ramarao, C., Gordon, R.S., Holmes, A.B., Morrison, A.J., McConvey, I.F., Shirley, I.M., Smith, S.C., Smith, M.D. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Carbodiimide production from cyanamide by UV irradiation and thermal reaction on amorphous water ice. Duvernay, F., Chiavassa, T., Borget, F., Aycard, J.P. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. 11 alpha-Hydroxylation of progesterone in biphasic media using alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus gel beads coated with polyurea. Houng, J.Y., Chiang, W.P., Chen, K.C., Tiu, C. Enzyme Microb. Technol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Side-effects of paclitaxel therapy in ovarian cancer patents. Lehoczky, O., Bagaméri, A., Udvary, J., Pulay, T. Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Interactions between hydrophobic and ionic solutes in aqueous guanidinium chloride and urea solutions: lessons for protein denaturation mechanism. O'Brien, E.P., Dima, R.I., Brooks, B., Thirumalai, D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Synthesis of Mo and W carbide and nitride nanoparticles via a simple "urea glass" route. Giordano, C., Erpen, C., Yao, W., Antonietti, M. Nano Lett. (2008) [Pubmed]
  28. Physiological and transcriptomic aspects of urea uptake and assimilation in Arabidopsis plants. Mérigout, P., Lelandais, M., Bitton, F., Renou, J.P., Briand, X., Meyer, C., Daniel-Vedele, F. Plant Physiol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  29. Epidermal growth factor in plasma, serum and urine before and after prolonged exercise. Konradsen, L., Nexø, E. Regul. Pept. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Synthesis and biological evaluation of potent glycosidase inhibitors: N-phenyl cyclic isourea derivatives of 5-amino- and 5-amino-C-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetraols. Uchida, C., Kimura, H., Ogawa, S. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Freezing behaviour of microencapsulated water. Yamane, H., Ohshima, H., Kondo, T. Journal of microencapsulation. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. AtDUR3 represents the major transporter for high-affinity urea transport across the plasma membrane of nitrogen-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Kojima, S., Bohner, A., Gassert, B., Yuan, L., von Wirén, N. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Clinical studies of Ukrain in healthy volunteers (phase 1). Danysz, A., Kokoschinegg, M., Hamler, F. Drugs under experimental and clinical research. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. The effect of bleaching on enamel susceptibility to acid erosion and demineralisation. Pretty, I.A., Edgar, W.M., Higham, S.M. British dental journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the superficial roughness of esthetic restorative materials. Amaral, C.M., Rodrigues, J.A., Erhardt, M.C., Araujo, M.W., Marchi, G.M., Pimenta, L.A. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.] (2006) [Pubmed]
 
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