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MeSH Review

Insurance Benefits

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Disease relevance of Insurance Benefits


Psychiatry related information on Insurance Benefits

  • Official guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assert that the majority of health benefits from physical activity are obtained by walking 2 miles (3.2 km) briskly most days of the week (the energy equivalent of running 8 to 12 km per week) [6].
  • Quitting smoking significantly benefits health, but for highly dependent smokers, unable to overcome their nicotine dependence, the concept of smoking reduction as a method of harm reduction is gaining ground [7].

High impact information on Insurance Benefits

  • Substantial increases in HDL cholesterol concentrations were found in women who exercised at levels exceeding current guidelines; higher HDL cholesterol concentrations could provide added health benefits to these women [6].
  • Combined androgen blockade is the least economically attractive option, yielding small health benefits at high relative costs [8].
  • We calculated the health benefit of nicotine-patch treatment in number of life years that would be saved by stopping smoking at various ages, and used an abstinence-contingent treatment model to calculate the incremental cost per life year saved by GP counselling with nicotine-patch treatment over GP counselling alone [9].
  • Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are valuable commodities that provide important human health benefits [10].
  • We have upregulated flavonol biosynthesis in the tomato in order to generate fruit with increased antioxidant capacity and a wider range of potential health benefit properties [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Insurance Benefits


Biological context of Insurance Benefits


Anatomical context of Insurance Benefits


Associations of Insurance Benefits with chemical compounds

  • Adjuvant therapy studies also demonstrate that tamoxifen is well tolerated by most patients and suggest additional health benefits from alterations in plasma lipid levels and stabilization of bone mineral loss in women receiving tamoxifen [27].
  • For the U.S. population, however, the potential health benefits and economic savings resulting from wider use of monitored isoniazid prophylaxis are substantial [28].
  • There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts [29].
  • Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits [30].
  • The two largest plans in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program-Blue Cross and Blue Shield and Aetna - have reported benefit payments and the number of people who have used psychiatric services on a state-by-state basis for two decades [31].

Gene context of Insurance Benefits

  • Isoflavones made simple - Genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits [32].
  • Smoking cessation may slow nephropathy progression; given the additional health benefits of stopping smoking, this advice is an important part of the strategy of diabetic nephropathy treatment and prevention [33].
  • They have antioxidant properties and may contribute to health benefits in humans, but little is known about their metabolic fate [34].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the health benefits and economics of treating NIDDM with the goal of normoglycemia [35].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that CPT and related synthetic analogues target specific pathways involved in inflammation, and hold considerable potential for dietary health benefits as well as for pharmaceutical development [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Insurance Benefits


  1. Validation of the Gail et al. model of breast cancer risk prediction and implications for chemoprevention. Rockhill, B., Spiegelman, D., Byrne, C., Hunter, D.J., Colditz, G.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Economic outcomes of withdrawal of digoxin therapy in adult patients with stable congestive heart failure. Ward, R.E., Gheorghiade, M., Young, J.B., Uretsky, B. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Survival of probiotic lactobacilli in acidic environments is enhanced in the presence of metabolizable sugars. Corcoran, B.M., Stanton, C., Fitzgerald, G.F., Ross, R.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview. Mares-Perlman, J.A., Millen, A.E., Ficek, T.L., Hankinson, S.E. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Synthesis of the equine estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyequilin and 2-hydroxyequilenin. Zhang, F., Bolton, J.L. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in female runners. Williams, P.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Practical experiences in smoking reduction and cessation. Bolliger, C.T. Addiction (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Cost-effectiveness of androgen suppression therapies in advanced prostate cancer. Bayoumi, A.M., Brown, A.D., Garber, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Prescription of transdermal nicotine patches for smoking cessation in general practice: evaluation of cost-effectiveness. Stapleton, J.A., Lowin, A., Russell, M.A. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Stepwise engineering to produce high yields of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants. Wu, G., Truksa, M., Datla, N., Vrinten, P., Bauer, J., Zank, T., Cirpus, P., Heinz, E., Qiu, X. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols. Muir, S.R., Collins, G.J., Robinson, S., Hughes, S., Bovy, A., Ric De Vos, C.H., van Tunen, A.J., Verhoeyen, M.E. Nat. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Soy for breast cancer survivors: a critical review of the literature. Messina, M.J., Loprinzi, C.L. J. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Tuberculin screening: cost-effectiveness analysis of various testing schedules. Schechter, C.B., Rose, D.N., Fahs, M.C., Silver, A.L. American journal of preventive medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Insulin resistance with aging: effects of diet and exercise. Ryan, A.S. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Small angle X-ray scattering of resistant starch type III. Shamai, K., Shimoni, E., Bianco-Peled, H. Biomacromolecules (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Cost-effectiveness of alendronate therapy for osteopenic postmenopausal women. Schousboe, J.T., Nyman, J.A., Kane, R.L., Ensrud, K.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oils. Hunter, J.E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease. Bigham, M., Copes, R. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The role of ascorbate in antioxidant protection of biomembranes: interaction with vitamin E and coenzyme Q. Beyer, R.E. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The potential role of probiotics in pediatric urology. Reid, G. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. Park, Y.J., Volpe, S.L., Decker, E.A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers. Canfield, L.M., Clandinin, M.T., Davies, D.P., Fernandez, M.C., Jackson, J., Hawkes, J., Goldman, W.J., Pramuk, K., Reyes, H., Sablan, B., Sonobe, T., Bo, X. European journal of nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Trans-10, cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer, inhibits brown adipocyte thermogenic capacity. Rodríguez, E., Ribot, J., Palou, A. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. A creatine transporter is operative at the brush border level of the rat jejunal enterocyte. Tosco, M., Faelli, A., Sironi, C., Gastaldi, G., Orsenigo, M.N. J. Membr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Some factors affecting the adherence of probiotic Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL 1198 to intestinal epithelial cells. Zárate, G., Morata De Ambrosini, V., Perez Chaia, A., González, S. Can. J. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Preterm labour. Terzidou, V., Bennett, P.R. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Potential role of tamoxifen in prevention of breast cancer. Nayfield, S.G., Karp, J.E., Ford, L.G., Dorr, F.A., Kramer, B.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Monitored isoniazid prophylaxis for low-risk tuberculin reactors older than 35 years of age: a risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. Salpeter, S.R., Sanders, G.D., Salpeter, E.E., Owens, D.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Reid, G., Jass, J., Sebulsky, M.T., McCormick, J.K. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Schroeter, H., Heiss, C., Balzer, J., Kleinbongard, P., Keen, C.L., Hollenberg, N.K., Sies, H., Kwik-Uribe, C., Schmitz, H.H., Kelm, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Federal Employees' experience as a guide to the cost of insuring psychiatric services in the various states. Krizay, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Isoflavones made simple - Genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Antihypertensive treatment and multifactorial approach for renal protection in diabetes. Fioretto, P., Solini, A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabolism of dietary procyanidins in rats. Gonthier, M.P., Donovan, J.L., Texier, O., Felgines, C., Remesy, C., Scalbert, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Model of complications of NIDDM. II. Analysis of the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of treating NIDDM with the goal of normoglycemia. Eastman, R.C., Javitt, J.C., Herman, W.H., Dasbach, E.J., Copley-Merriman, C., Maier, W., Dong, F., Manninen, D., Zbrozek, A.S., Kotsanos, J., Garfield, S.A., Harris, M. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Immunosuppressive activity of capsaicinoids: capsiate derived from sweet peppers inhibits NF-kappaB activation and is a potent antiinflammatory compound in vivo. Sancho, R., Lucena, C., Macho, A., Calzado, M.A., Blanco-Molina, M., Minassi, A., Appendino, G., Muñoz, E. Eur. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Considerations of the scientific substantiation for antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene in disease prevention. Blumberg, J.B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Androgen and estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy: a review of the safety literature, 1941 to 1996. Gelfand, M.M., Wiita, B. Clinical therapeutics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. The costs of children with sickle cell anemia: preparing for managed care. Bilenker, J.H., Weller, W.E., Shaffer, T.J., Dover, G.J., Anderson, G.F. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. A 3-month home use study comparing the oral hygiene and gingival health benefits of triclosan and conventional fluoride toothpastes. Binney, A., Addy, M., Owens, J., Faulkner, J., McKeown, S., Everatt, L. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1996) [Pubmed]
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