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Chemical Compound Review

Docatone     1-ethyl-4-(2-morpholin-4- ylethyl)-3,3...

Synonyms: doxapram, Dopram, Doxapramum, Stimulexin, Doxapram HCL, ...
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Disease relevance of doxapram


Psychiatry related information on doxapram

  • METHOD: Quantitative water method positron emission tomography was used to obtain brain images of five untreated subjects with panic disorder and five healthy comparison subjects before and during anxiogenic challenge with intravenous doxapram, an acute respiratory stimulant [6].
  • METHODS: The effects of doxapram were determined for cue and contextual fear conditioning, the open field test, and the social interaction test [7].
  • Respiratory psychophysiology and anxiety: cognitive intervention in the doxapram model of panic [8].
  • When administered during an episode of spontaneous FB during REM sleep, both caffeine and doxapram caused stimulation of the frequency and depth of breathing [9].
  • Four cases are reported where patients reacted with severe restlessness, violence or hallucinations at low doses of doxapram infusion [10].

High impact information on doxapram


Chemical compound and disease context of doxapram


Biological context of doxapram

  • Neither aspirin nor doxapram affect the shape of this stimulus-response curve, and in particular do not prevent low FIO2 associated inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction [17].
  • Six hours after starting doxapram, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly elevated, and continued to increase during the 24 hours of therapy [18].
  • Falls in heart rate were significantly less in infants receiving doxapram (27.8% +/- 18.0%) than in infants receiving theophylline (44.5% +/- 19.0%) or no therapy (48.4% +/- 18.3%) (p = < 0.001) [19].
  • Doxapram therapy was associated with significant increases in minute ventilation, tidal volume, mean inspiratory flow, and airway pressure 100 msec after occlusion [18].
  • We were able to monitor intracranial pressure (ICP) throughout the course of doxapram via an ICP monitor [20].

Anatomical context of doxapram


Associations of doxapram with other chemical compounds


Gene context of doxapram

  • Chimera studies suggested that the carboxy terminus of TASK-1 is important for doxapram inhibition [27].
  • Doxapram stimulates ventilation through an effect on carotid bodies, and we hypothesized that stimulation might result from inhibition of TASK-1 or TASK-3 K channel function [27].
  • The effects of NIPPV were compared with those of the respiratory stimulant doxapram on gas exchange in patients with COPD and acute ventilatory failure [28].
  • The oxidative pathway producing keto-doxapram, or AHR 5955 and AHR 5904, is more active than the de-ethylation producing the analog of doxapram AHR 0914 [11].
  • Doxapram increases corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and mRNA expression in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of doxapram


  1. Prolonged doxapram infusion in obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Houser, W.C., Schlueter, D.P. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Inherited phosphofructokinase deficiency in dogs with hyperventilation-induced hemolysis: increased in vitro and in vivo alkaline fragility of erythrocytes. Giger, U., Harvey, J.W., Yamaguchi, R.A., McNulty, P.K., Chiapella, A., Beutler, E. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. QT interval lengthening in premature infants treated with doxapram. Maillard, C., Boutroy, M.J., Fresson, J., Barbé, F., Hascoët, J.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Congenital failure of automatic control of ventilation, gastrointestinal motility and heart rate. Haddad, G.G., Mazza, N.M., Defendini, R., Blanc, W.A., Driscoll, J.M., Epstein, M.A., Epstein, R.A., Mellins, R.B. Medicine (Baltimore) (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistent respiratory irregularity in patients with panic disorder. Abelson, J.L., Weg, J.G., Nesse, R.M., Curtis, G.C. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Prediction of panic response to a respiratory stimulant by reduced orbitofrontal cerebral blood flow in panic disorder. Kent, J.M., Coplan, J.D., Mawlawi, O., Martinez, J.M., Browne, S.T., Slifstein, M., Martinez, D., Abi-Dargham, A., Laruelle, M., Gorman, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Rodent doxapram model of panic: behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala. Sullivan, G.M., Apergis, J., Gorman, J.M., LeDoux, J.E. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Respiratory psychophysiology and anxiety: cognitive intervention in the doxapram model of panic. Abelson, J.L., Nesse, R.M., Weg, J.G., Curtis, G.C. Psychosomatic medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Drug-induced changes in fetal breathing activity and sleep state. Jansen, A.H., Ioffe, S., Chernick, V. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Side effects of doxapram infusion. Baxter, A.D. European journal of intensive care medicine. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Doxapram metabolism in human fetal hepatic organ culture. Bairam, A., Branchaud, C., Beharry, K., Rex, J., Laudignon, N., Papageorgiou, A., Aranda, J.V. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Aminophylline versus doxapram in idiopathic apnea of prematurity: a double-blind controlled study. Eyal, F., Alpan, G., Sagi, E., Glick, B., Peleg, O., Dgani, Y., Arad, I. Pediatrics (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. A blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to compare theophylline and doxapram for the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Peliowski, A., Finer, N.N. J. Pediatr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Doxapram hydrochloride: a respiratory stimulant for patients with primary alveolar hypoventilation. Lugliani, R., Whipp, B.J., Wasserman, K. Chest (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of doxapram on episodes of apnoea, bradycardia and hypoxaemia in preterm infants. Poets, C.F., Darraj, S., Bohnhorst, B. Biol. Neonate (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of doxapram on cerebral blood flow velocity in preterm infants. Roll, C., Horsch, S. Neuropediatrics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulus-response curves for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in piglets. De Canniere, D., Stefanidis, C., Hallemans, R., Delcroix, M., Brimioulle, S., Naeije, R. Cardiovasc. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Physiologic effects of doxapram in idiopathic apnea of prematurity. Barrington, K.J., Finer, N.N., Peters, K.L., Barton, J. J. Pediatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Obstructive, mixed, and central apnea in the neonate: physiologic correlates. Finer, N.N., Barrington, K.J., Hayes, B.J., Hugh, A. J. Pediatr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Use of doxapram to increase respirations without a concomitant increase in intracranial pressure. Fisher, B., Rodarte, A. Crit. Care Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Potencies of doxapram and hypoxia in stimulating carotid-body chemoreceptors and ventilation in anesthetized cats. Mitchell, R.A., Herbert, D.A. Anesthesiology (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Aminophylline versus doxapram in weaning premature infants from mechanical ventilation: preliminary report. Eyal, F.G., Sagi, E.F., Alpan, G., Glick, B., Arad, I. Crit. Care Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Use of doxapram as an arousal agent in outpatient general anaesthesia. Riddell, P.L., Robertson, G.S. British journal of anaesthesia. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of caffeine and doxapram perfusion on local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats. Schroeder, H., Boyet, S., Nehlig, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. The ventilatory effects of doxapram in normal man. Calverley, P.M., Robson, R.H., Wraith, P.K., Prescott, L.F., Flenley, D.C. Clin. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. The effects of unilateral carotid body excision on ventilatory control in goats. Busch, M.A., Bisgard, G.E., Mesina, J.E., Forster, H.V. Respiration physiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. The ventilatory stimulant doxapram inhibits TASK tandem pore (K2P) potassium channel function but does not affect minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Cotten, J.F., Keshavaprasad, B., Laster, M.J., Eger, E.I., Yost, C.S. Anesth. Analg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of the acute effects on gas exchange of nasal ventilation and doxapram in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Angus, R.M., Ahmed, A.A., Fenwick, L.J., Peacock, A.J. Thorax (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Doxapram increases corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and mRNA expression in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala. Choi, S.H., Kim, S.J., Park, S.H., Moon, B.H., Do, E., Chun, B.G., Lee, M.S., Shin, K.H. Peptides (2005) [Pubmed]
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