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Gene Review

Slc18a2  -  solute carrier family 18 (vesicular...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: MNAT, Monoamine transporter, Solute carrier family 18 member 2, Svat, Synaptic vesicular amine transporter, ...
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Disease relevance of Slc18a2


High impact information on Slc18a2


Chemical compound and disease context of Slc18a2


Biological context of Slc18a2

  • Phosphorylation of a vesicular monoamine transporter by casein kinase II [11].
  • 2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning using oligonucleotide primers to DNA sequences conserved within the VMAT family provided evidence for VMAT2, but not VMAT1 in rat gastric corpus [1].
  • The down-regulation of VMAT2 in this dopaminergic regions may serve as an adaptatory mechanism in the response to prolonged stress, and may be relevant to chronic stress-induced depression [12].
  • The reduced levels of VMAT2 protein binding capacity were not accompanied by a parallel alteration in VMAT2 mRNA levels in the VTA, the SNC and the DR [13].
  • In addition, the brains of VMAT2 heterozygotes contain substantially lower monoamine levels than those of wild-type littermates, and depolarization induces less dopamine release from heterozygous than from wild-type cultures, suggesting that VMAT2 expression regulates monoamine storage and release [14].

Anatomical context of Slc18a2


Associations of Slc18a2 with chemical compounds

  • Purified CKI and CKII phosphorylate the wild-type carboxyl terminus of VMAT2, but not a double mutant with both serines 512 and 514 replaced by alanine [11].
  • Phosphoamino acid analysis indicates that this phosphorylation occurs on serine residues, and the analysis of VMAT1-VMAT2 chimeras and site-directed mutagenesis localize the phosphorylation sites to serines 512 and 514 at the carboxyl terminus of VMAT2 [11].
  • Expression and regulation of a vesicular monoamine transporter in rat stomach: a putative histamine transporter [1].
  • A series of cyclo-3beta-(4-aminophenyl)-2beta-tropanemethanol analogues (5a-m) possessing varying linker groups between the 2- and 3-position on the tropane ring were synthesized and evaluated for their monoamine transporter binding properties [17].
  • Omeprazole also elevated VMAT2 expression in rats fasted for 48 h, but fasting alone, or refeeding fasted animals had no effect [1].

Physical interactions of Slc18a2


Regulatory relationships of Slc18a2


Other interactions of Slc18a2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Slc18a2


  1. Expression and regulation of a vesicular monoamine transporter in rat stomach: a putative histamine transporter. Dimaline, R., Struthers, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Vesicular amine transporter expression and isoform selection in developing brain, peripheral nervous system and gut. Schütz, B., Schäfer, M.K., Eiden, L.E., Weihe, E. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Early, selective, and marked loss of sympathetic nerves from the islets of BioBreeder diabetic rats. Mei, Q., Mundinger, T.O., Lernmark, A., Taborsky, G.J. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase, GTP cyclohydrolase I, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 from a helper virus-free herpes simplex virus type 1 vector supports high-level, long-term biochemical and behavioral correction of a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Sun, M., Kong, L., Wang, X., Holmes, C., Gao, Q., Zhang, G.R., Pfeilschifter, J., Goldstein, D.S., Geller, A.I. Hum. Gene Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Synaptophysin enhances the neuroprotection of VMAT2 in MPP+-induced toxicity in MN9D cells. Chen, C.X., Huang, S.Y., Zhang, L., Liu, Y.J. Neurobiol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Sorting of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 to the regulated secretory pathway confers the somatodendritic exocytosis of monoamines. Li, H., Waites, C.L., Staal, R.G., Dobryy, Y., Park, J., Sulzer, D.L., Edwards, R.H. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the vesicular monoamine transporter in cultured rat sympathetic neurons: persistence upon induction of cholinergic phenotypic traits. Scherman, D., Weber, M.J. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Lobeline attenuates methamphetamine-induced changes in vesicular monoamine transporter 2 immunoreactivity and monoamine depletions in the striatum. Eyerman, D.J., Yamamoto, B.K. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Bupropion increases striatal vesicular monoamine transport. Rau, K.S., Birdsall, E., Hanson, J.E., Johnson-Davis, K.L., Carroll, F.I., Wilkins, D.G., Gibb, J.W., Hanson, G.R., Fleckenstein, A.E. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2: a novel mechanism for cocaine and other psychostimulants. Brown, J.M., Hanson, G.R., Fleckenstein, A.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Phosphorylation of a vesicular monoamine transporter by casein kinase II. Krantz, D.E., Peter, D., Liu, Y., Edwards, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Repeated swim stress leads to down-regulation of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in rat brain nucleus accumbens and striatum. Zucker, M., Weizman, A., Rehavi, M. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased limbic vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in a genetic rat model of depression. Schwartz, K., Yadid, G., Weizman, A., Rehavi, M. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Vesicular transport regulates monoamine storage and release but is not essential for amphetamine action. Fon, E.A., Pothos, E.N., Sun, B.C., Killeen, N., Sulzer, D., Edwards, R.H. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Preferential localization of a vesicular monoamine transporter to dense core vesicles in PC12 cells. Liu, Y., Schweitzer, E.S., Nirenberg, M.J., Pickel, V.M., Evans, C.J., Edwards, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression cloning of a reserpine-sensitive vesicular monoamine transporter. Erickson, J.D., Eiden, L.E., Hoffman, B.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Synthesis and monoamine transporter binding properties of 2,3-cyclo analogues of 3beta-(4'-aminophenyl)-2beta-tropanemethanol. Carroll, F.I., Blough, B.E., Huang, X., Nie, Z., Mascarella, S.W., Deschamps, J., Navarro, H.A. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Neurosecretory vesicles can be hybrids of synaptic vesicles and secretory granules. Bauerfeind, R., Jelinek, R., Hellwig, A., Huttner, W.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Gastrin induces expression and promoter activity of the vesicular monoamine transporter subtype 2. Gerhard, M., Neumayer, N., Presecan-Siedel, E., Zanner, R., Lengyel, E., Cramer, T., Höcker, M., Prinz, C. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 expression in enteric neurons and enterochromaffin-like cells of the rat. De Giorgio, R., Su, D., Peter, D., Edwards, R.H., Brecha, N.C., Sternini, C. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Exocytotic proteins in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the rat stomach. Zhao, C.M., Jacobsson, G., Chen, D., Hâkanson, R., Meister, B. Cell Tissue Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Chronic levodopa is not toxic for remaining dopamine neurons, but instead promotes their recovery, in rats with moderate nigrostriatal lesions. Murer, M.G., Dziewczapolski, G., Menalled, L.B., García, M.C., Agid, Y., Gershanik, O., Raisman-Vozari, R. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 is present in small synaptic vesicles and preferentially localizes to large dense core vesicles in rat solitary tract nuclei. Nirenberg, M.J., Liu, Y., Peter, D., Edwards, R.H., Pickel, V.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
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