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Chemical Compound Review

ECMA     2-(1-ethyl-1-azoniacycloprop- 1-yl)ethanol

Synonyms: AF64A, AC1L2DVF, LS-23366, AF 64A, C6H14NO, ...
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Disease relevance of Ethylcholine aziridinium


Psychiatry related information on Ethylcholine aziridinium


High impact information on Ethylcholine aziridinium


Biological context of Ethylcholine aziridinium


Anatomical context of Ethylcholine aziridinium


Associations of Ethylcholine aziridinium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ethylcholine aziridinium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ethylcholine aziridinium


  1. Tacrine or arecoline mediates reversal of anoxia- or AF64A-induced behavioural disorders in the developing rat. Speiser, Z., Reicher, S., Gitter, S., Cohen, S. Neuropharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Minaprine improves impairment of working memory induced by scopolamine and cerebral ischemia in rats. Yamamoto, T., Yatsugi, S., Ohno, M., Furuya, Y., Kitajima, I., Ueki, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of selective toxic lesions of cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus on experimental seizures. Miller, J.W., Gray, B.C., Bardgett, M.E. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion lesions of the rat cortex result in retrograde degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: implications for animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Stephens, P.H., Tagari, P., Cuello, A.C. Neurochem. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective damage to cochlear efferents by the choline neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) in the chinchilla. Smith, D.W., Mount, R.J., Callahan, J.W. Hear. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Alpha-sialyl cholesterol reverses AF64A-induced deficit in passive avoidance response and depletion of hippocampal acetylcholine in mice. Abe, E., Murai, S., Masuda, Y., Saito, H., Itoh, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Beneficial effects of FKS-508 (AF102B), a selective M1 agonist, on the impaired working memory in AF64A-treated rats. Nakahara, N., Iga, Y., Saito, Y., Mizobe, F., Kawanishi, G. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Melatonin is protective in necrotic but not in caspase-dependent, free radical-independent apoptotic neuronal cell death in primary neuronal cultures. Harms, C., Lautenschlager, M., Bergk, A., Freyer, D., Weih, M., Dirnagl, U., Weber, J.R., Hörtnagl, H. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of glucocorticoids in the cholinergic degeneration in rat hippocampus induced by ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A). Hörtnagl, H., Berger, M.L., Havelec, L., Hornykiewicz, O. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuronal gelsolin prevents apoptosis by enhancing actin depolymerization. Harms, C., Bösel, J., Lautenschlager, M., Harms, U., Braun, J.S., Hörtnagl, H., Dirnagl, U., Kwiatkowski, D.J., Fink, K., Endres, M. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Protection against inflammatory neurodegeneration and glial cell death by 7beta-hydroxy epiandrosterone, a novel neurosteroid. Dudas, B., Hanin, I., Rose, M., Wülfert, E. Neurobiol. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in the progression of neuronal cell death in vitro and following cerebral ischaemia in vivo. Kapinya, K.J., Harms, U., Harms, C., Blei, K., Katchanov, J., Dirnagl, U., Hörtnagl, H. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes of cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic synaptic transmission indices elicited by ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A) infused intraventricularly. Eva, C., Fabrazzo, M., Costa, E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Dose-dependent effect of cholinotoxin AF64A on the cholinergic elements of the cingulum bundle in rat. Dudas, B., Rose, M., Hanin, I. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxidative stress in the brain following intraventricular administration of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A). Gulyaeva, N.V., Lazareva, N.A., Libe, M.L., Mitrokhina, O.S., Onufriev, M.V., Stepanichev MYu, n.u.l.l., Chernysevskaya, I.A., Walsh, T.J. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Influences of cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine aziridinium ion on circadian rhythms in rats. Endo, Y., Shinohara, K., Fueta, Y., Irie, M. Neurosci. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of high-affinity choline transport caused by ethylcholine aziridinium ion. Pittel, Z., Fisher, A., Heldman, E. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Septohippocampal adaptive GABAergic responses by AF64A treatment. Ayala-Grosso, C.A., Urbina-Paez, R. J. Neurosci. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo by the cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine aziridinium. Rinner, W.A., Pifl, C., Lassmann, H., Hörtnagl, H. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Septohippocampal neurons after intraventricular AF64A administration in rats: an electrophysiological study. Lamour, Y., Dutar, P., Rascol, O., Jobert, A. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Regional differences in ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A)-induced deficits in presynaptic cholinergic markers for the rat central nervous system. Vickroy, T.W., Watson, M., Leventer, S.M., Roeske, W.R., Hanin, I., Yamamura, H.I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of nitric oxide in the ethylcholine aziridinium model of delayed apoptotic neurodegeneration in vivo and in vitro. Lautenschlager, M., Onufriev, M.V., Gulyaeva, N.V., Harms, C., Freyer, D., Sehmsdorf, U., Ruscher, K., Moiseeva, Y.V., Arnswald, A., Victorov, I., Dirnagl, U., Weber, J.R., Hörtnagl, H. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of intracerebroventricular AF64A administration on cholinergic, serotoninergic and catecholaminergic circuitry in rat dorsal hippocampus. Gaál, G., Potter, P.E., Hanin, I., Kakucska, I., Vizi, E.S. Neuroscience (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of sustained release formulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on learning impairments caused by scopolamine and AF64A in rodents. Miyamoto, M., Hirai, K., Takahashi, H., Kato, K., Nishiyama, M., Okada, H., Nagaoka, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Long-term cholinergic denervation caused by early postnatal AF64A lesion prevents development of muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus. Luiten, P.G., Van der Zee, E.A., Gáspár, E., Buwalda, B., Strosberg, A.D., Nyakas, C. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Possible involvement of central cholinergic system in ameliorating effects of indeloxazine, a cerebral activator, on disturbance of learning behavior in rats. Yamamoto, M., Takahashi, K., Ohyama, M., Sasamata, M., Yatsugi, S., Okada, M., Endoh, H. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Cholinergic deficit induced by ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) transiently affects somatostatin and neuropeptide Y levels in rat brain. Hörtnagl, H., Sperk, G., Sobal, G., Maas, D. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium blocks the axoplasmic transport of acetylcholinesterase in cholinergic nerve fibres of the rat. Kása, P., Hanin, I. Histochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Selective lesion of neurons in primary cell cultures by MPTP and ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A). Amir, A., Shahar, A., Pittel, Z., Korczyn, A.D., Fisher, A., Heldman, E. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. An obligatory role for spinal cholinergic neurons in the antiallodynic effects of clonidine after peripheral nerve injury. Paqueron, X., Li, X., Bantel, C., Tobin, J.R., Voytko, M.L., Eisenach, J.C. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the role of cholinergic neurons in nicotine self-administration in the rat: a correlative neuroanatomical and behavioral study. Lança, A.J., Adamson, K.L., Coen, K.M., Chow, B.L., Corrigall, W.A. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Low intracerebroventricular doses of cholinotoxin AF64A do not affect the morphology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive fibers in the rat septum. Semeniken, K., Hanin, I., Dudas, B. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Non-specific effects of the putative cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion in the rat brain examined by autoradiography, immunocytochemistry and gel electrophoresis. Allen, Y.S., Marchbanks, R.M., Sinden, J.D. Neurosci. Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. The biochemical and ultrastructural examinations in central cholinergic damage of the rat induced by the intraperitoneal administration of AF64A. Ishii, T., Miwa, T., Nishio, H., Yagasaki, O. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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