The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Trh  -  thyrotropin releasing hormone

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Pro-TRH, Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Prothyroliberin, THR, TRH01, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Trh


Psychiatry related information on Trh


High impact information on Trh


Chemical compound and disease context of Trh


Biological context of Trh


Anatomical context of Trh


Associations of Trh with chemical compounds

  • The biphasic nature of TRH action on [Ca2+]i parallels the biphasic actions of TRH on 45Ca2+ fluxes and the biphasic release of PRL by GH cells in suspension [24].
  • TRH stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 52-kDa Shc protein, although neither phorbol esters nor the calcium ionophore A23187 had any effect, indicating that this effect of TRH was not dependent on PKC [1].
  • The TRH-induced spike phase was attenuated but not abolished by prior addition of EGTA, while the plateau phase was eliminated by EGTA [24].
  • TRH-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation was markedly potentiated by forskolin in Ca2+-restored, but not in Ca2+-depleted, cell preparations [25].
  • Exposure of GH3 cells preloaded with 45Ca to TRH, PGE1, EGF, PMA, or VIP resulted in losses of cell-associated 45Ca [25].

Physical interactions of Trh


Enzymatic interactions of Trh


Regulatory relationships of Trh

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced spike and plateau in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in pituitary cells. Relation to prolactin release [24].
  • GH4 pituitary cell variants selected as nonresponsive to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-enhanced substratum adhesion are nonresponsive to epidermal growth factor: evidence for a common signaling defect [31].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that after MI, the expression of pro-TRH is induced in the heart coordinately with the protease PC1, an important enzyme in TRH biosynthesis [4].
  • Taken together, the data suggest that Fos-like IR is induced within TRH-expressing neurons in the pPVN as a consequence of decreasing levels of circulating thyroid hormone (TH) [21].
  • The TRH-induced increases in c-fos and beta-actin mRNA may play a role in the secretory response [32].

Other interactions of Trh


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trh

  • A significant correlation between numbers of Fos-like IR cells in the pPVN and plasma TSH concentration following thyroidectomy was also observed, suggesting that plasma levels of TSH correlate directly with the number of activated TRH-containing neurons located in the pPVN [21].
  • TRH and AP hormones including GH, prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured by RIA, proTRH mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization using a full-length riboprobe followed by quantification with a computer-assisted image analysis system [35].
  • Gel filtration of BHE on the Sephadex G-100 column yielded two peaks of PRA distinct from TRH, VIP and END [36].
  • The proteins modified by TRH treatment were present in low amounts in the cell; they were not detectable by silver staining of the gels, except for protein 1 (Mr = 80,000) whose TRH-induced conversion from its unphosphorylated to its more acidic phosphorylated form was observed directly on silver-stained gels [37].
  • To determine whether CART and TRH interact in the regulation of anterior pituitary function, we have studied the effects of CART on TRH-induced release of TSH and prolactin in anterior pituitary cell cultures, and the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on CART mRNA in the PVN [38].


  1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates MAP kinase activity in GH3 cells by divergent pathways. Evidence of a role for early tyrosine phosphorylation. Ohmichi, M., Sawada, T., Kanda, Y., Koike, K., Hirota, K., Miyake, A., Saltiel, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Vasopressin and oxytocin release as influenced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone in euhydrated and dehydrated rats. Ciosek, J. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Thyrotropin releasing hormone injected into the nucleus accumbens septi selectively increases face grooming in rats. Gargiulo, P.A. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is induced in the left ventricle of rats with heart failure and can provide inotropic support to the failing heart. Jin, H., Fedorowicz, G., Yang, R., Ogasawara, A., Peale, F., Pham, T., Paoni, N.F. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the posterior pituitary. Rondeel, J.M., Klootwijk, W., Linkels, E., van Haasteren, G.A., de Greef, W.J., Visser, T.J. Neuroendocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. JTP-4819: a novel prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor with potential as a cognitive enhancer. Toide, K., Iwamoto, Y., Fujiwara, T., Abe, H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes in TRH and its degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II, during the development of amygdaloid kindling. de Gortari, P., Fernández-Guardiola, A., Martinez, A., Cisneros, M., Joseph-Bravo, P. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and dementia. Sunderland, T., Mellow, A.M., Gross, M., Cohen, R.M., Tariot, P.N., Newhouse, P.A., Murphy, D.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Adenohypophyseal degradation of thyrotropin releasing hormone regulated by thyroid hormones. Bauer, K. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Independent phosphatidylinositol synthesis in pituitary plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Imai, A., Gershengorn, M.C. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone--CNS action to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Taché, Y., Vale, W., Brown, M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Dopamine stimulates the degradation of gonadotropin releasing hormone by rat synaptosomes. Marcano de Cotte, D., De Menezes, C.E., Bennett, G.W., Edwardson, J.A. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. An analogue of creatine increases TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion and phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat pituitary tumor cells. Prysor-Jones, R.A., Silverlight, J.J., Whitley, G.S., Jenkins, J.S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Changes of cell morphology and prolactin secretion induced by 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine, estradiol, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Antakly, T., Pelletier, G., Zeytinoglu, F., Labrie, F. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Response of hypothalamic peptide mRNAs to thyroidectomy. Ceccatelli, S., Giardino, L., Calzá, L. Neuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Calcitriol attenuates the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated inositol phosphate production in clonal rat pituitary (GH4C1) cells. Sørnes, G., Haug, E., Torjesen, P.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular mechanisms of phorbol ester, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and growth factor stimulation of prolactin gene transcription. Murdoch, G.H., Waterman, M., Evans, R.M., Rosenfeld, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Overproduction of a Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isozyme, nPKC epsilon, increases the secretion of prolactin from thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. Akita, Y., Ohno, S., Yajima, Y., Konno, Y., Saido, T.C., Mizuno, K., Chida, K., Osada, S., Kuroki, T., Kawashima, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and epidermal growth factor regulate iron-regulatory protein binding in pituitary cells via protein kinase C-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Thomson, A.M., Rogers, J.T., Leedman, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin secretion: reduced sensitivity to TRH-stimulated prolactin release after midpregnancy in rats. Bridges, R.S., Terkel, J., Sawyer, C.H. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Thyroidectomy induces Fos-like immunoreactivity within thyrotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the adult rat hypothalamus. Koibuchi, N., Gibbs, R.B., Suzuki, M., Pfaff, D.W. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Corticotropin-releasing factor acts on the brain to reduce gastric contractility. Garrick, T., Veiseh, A., Taché, Y., Weiner, H. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on prolactin, growth hormone and corticosterone secretions in adult male rats treated with pentobarbital or morphine. Collu, R., Clermont, M.J., Ducharme, J.R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced spike and plateau in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in pituitary cells. Relation to prolactin release. Albert, P.R., Tashjian, A.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of Ca2+-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation and Ca2+ metabolism in intact pituitary tumor cells by modulators of prolactin production. Brostrom, M.A., Brostrom, C.O., Brotman, L.A., Green, S.S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. CRF microinjected into the dorsal vagal complex inhibits TRH analog- and kainic acid-stimulated gastric contractility in rats. Heymann-Mönnikes, I., Taché, Y., Trauner, M., Weiner, H., Garrick, T. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates biphasic elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium in GH3 cells. Further evidence that TRH mobilizes cellular and extracellular Ca2+. Gershengorn, M.C., Thaw, C. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone binding by monovalent cations and guanyl nucleotides. Hinkle, P.M., Kinsella, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Pyroglutamyl peptidase II inhibition specifically increases recovery of TRH released from rat brain slices. Charli, J.L., Mendez, M., Vargas, M.A., Cisneros, M., Assai, M., Joseph-Bravo, P., Wilk, S. Neuropeptides (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Analysis of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-degrading ectoenzyme by site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine residues. Cys68 is involved in disulfide-linked dimerization. Papadopoulos, T., Heuer, H., Bauer, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. GH4 pituitary cell variants selected as nonresponsive to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-enhanced substratum adhesion are nonresponsive to epidermal growth factor: evidence for a common signaling defect. Ramsdell, J.S., Tashjian, A.H. J. Cell. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone increases the levels of c-fos and beta-actin mRNA in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells. Weisman, A.S., Tixier-Vidal, A., Gourdji, D. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Estrogen receptor-beta, but not estrogen receptor-alpha, is expressed in prolactin neurons of the female rat paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei: comparison with other neuropeptides. Suzuki, S., Handa, R.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of lordosis-relevant neuropeptides on midbrain periaqueductal gray neuronal activity in vitro. Ogawa, S., Kow, L.M., Pfaff, D.W. Peptides (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in cultured anterior pituitary cells: role of gender. Bruhn, T.O., Rondeel, J.M., Bolduc, T.G., Jackson, I.M. Neuroendocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Multiple prolactin-releasing activity in the bovine hypothalamic extract. Nakamura, K., Sato, F., Yasuda, N., Kubokawa, M. Horm. Metab. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Distinct patterns of cytoplasmic protein phosphorylation related to regulation of synthesis and release of prolactin by GH cells. Sobel, A., Tashjian, A.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript co-contained in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates TRH-induced prolactin secretion. Raptis, S., Fekete, C., Sarkar, S., Rand, W.M., Emerson, C.H., Nagy, G.M., Lechan, R.M. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities