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Chemical Compound Review

Tiazole     2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4- dihydroxy-5...

Synonyms: Riboxamide, TIAZOFURIN, Tiazofurina, Tiazofurine, TCAR, ...
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Disease relevance of Riboxamide


Psychiatry related information on Riboxamide


High impact information on Riboxamide


Chemical compound and disease context of Riboxamide


Biological context of Riboxamide


Anatomical context of Riboxamide


Associations of Riboxamide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Riboxamide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Riboxamide

  • Modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) metabolism by the synthetic "C" nucleoside analogs, tiazofurin and selenazofurin. A new strategy for cancer chemotherapy [9].
  • Northern blot analysis of MEL cells treated with 7 mumol/L tiazofurin demonstrated accumulation of both alpha- and beta-globin RNA transcripts [3].
  • Furthermore, tiazofurin treatment resulted in inhibition of N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-induced stimulation of phospholipase C. Taken together, these results indicate that tiazofurin acts at least in part by inhibiting the ability of G proteins to function as transducers of intracellular signals [17].
  • Tiazofurin levels were measured using a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay, and pharmacokinetic studies were performed in patients treated at each dose level [27].
  • Extension of these approaches to the use of tiazofurin, for which biochemical markers and experimental combination chemotherapy leads are now available, would support the rational clinical development of tiazofurin combinations [28].


  1. Resistance of cultured Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines to tiazofurin. Finlay, G.J., Ching, L.M., Wilson, W.R., Baguley, B.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationships between the cytotoxicity of tiazofurin and its metabolism by cultured human lung cancer cells. Carney, D.N., Ahluwalia, G.S., Jayaram, H.N., Cooney, D.A., Johns, D.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Tiazofurin induction of mouse erythroleukemia cell hemoglobin production in the absence of commitment or changes in protooncogene expression. Sherman, M.L., Shafman, T.D., Colman, M.S., Kufe, D.W. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of HL60 cell differentiation by tiazofurin and its analogues: characterization and efficacy. Goldstein, B.M., Leary, J.F., Farley, B.A., Marquez, V.E., Levy, P.C., Rowley, P.T. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemically directed therapy of leukemia with tiazofurin, a selective blocker of inosine 5'-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Tricot, G.J., Jayaram, H.N., Lapis, E., Natsumeda, Y., Nichols, C.R., Kneebone, P., Heerema, N., Weber, G., Hoffman, R. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Inactivation by acivicin of rat brain CTP and GMP synthetases and depression of CTP and GTP concentrations. Achleitner, E., Lui, M.S., Weber, G. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. The effects of tiazofurin on basal and amphetamine-induced motor activity in rats. Janać, B., Pesić, V., Veskov, R., Ristić, S., Tasić, J., Piperski, V., Ruzdijić, S., Jokanović, M., Stukalov, P., Rakić, L. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans. Bieganowski, P., Brenner, C. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) metabolism by the synthetic "C" nucleoside analogs, tiazofurin and selenazofurin. A new strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Berger, N.A., Berger, S.J., Catino, D.M., Petzold, S.J., Robins, R.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Purine metabolism of human glioblastoma in vivo. Pillwein, K., Chiba, P., Knoflach, A., Czermak, B., Schuchter, K., Gersdorf, E., Ausserer, B., Murr, C., Goebl, R., Stockhammer, G. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequential impact of tiazofurin and ribavirin on the enzymic program of the bone marrow. Prajda, N., Hata, Y., Abonyi, M., Singhal, R.L., Weber, G. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosphoinositide signaling in nuclei of Friend cells: tiazofurin down-regulates phospholipase C beta 1. Manzoli, L., Billi, A.M., Gilmour, R.S., Martelli, A.M., Matteucci, A., Rubbini, S., Weber, G., Cocco, L. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Action of the active metabolites of tiazofurin and ribavirin on purified IMP dehydrogenase. Yamada, Y., Natsumeda, Y., Weber, G. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Synergistic antiviral effects of ribavirin and the C-nucleoside analogs tiazofurin and selenazofurin against togaviruses, bunyaviruses, and arenaviruses. Huggins, J.W., Robins, R.K., Canonico, P.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of erythroid differentiation and modulation of gene expression by tiazofurin in K-562 leukemia cells. Olah, E., Natsumeda, Y., Ikegami, T., Kote, Z., Horanyi, M., Szelenyi, J., Paulik, E., Kremmer, T., Hollan, S.R., Sugar, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergistic growth inhibitory and differentiating effects of trimidox and tiazofurin in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Szekeres, T., Fritzer, M., Strobl, H., Gharehbaghi, K., Findenig, G., Elford, H.L., Lhotka, C., Schoen, H.J., Jayaram, H.N. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of tiazofurin on guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins in HL-60 cells. Kharbanda, S.M., Sherman, M.L., Kufe, D.W. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Biochemical consequences of resistance to tiazofurin in human myelogenous leukemic K562 cells. Jayaram, H.N., Zhen, W., Gharehbaghi, K. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Tiazofurin is phosphorylated by three enzymes from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Saunders, P.P., Spindler, C.D., Tan, M.T., Alvarez, E., Robins, R.K. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Pharmacokinetics of tiazofurin in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of rhesus monkeys. Grygiel, J.J., Balis, F.M., Collins, J.M., Lester, C.M., Poplack, D.G. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. A role for guanine ribonucleotides in the regulation of myeloid cell maturation. Wright, D.G. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of erythroid differentiation in K562 cells by inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Yu, J., Lemas, V., Page, T., Connor, J.D., Yu, A.L. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Modulation of the in situ activity of tissue transglutaminase by calcium and GTP. Zhang, J., Lesort, M., Guttmann, R.P., Johnson, G.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure of human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Basis for the dual substrate specificity and activation of the oncolytic agent tiazofurin. Zhou, T., Kurnasov, O., Tomchick, D.R., Binns, D.D., Grishin, N.V., Marquez, V.E., Osterman, A.L., Zhang, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Tiazofurin-induced autosecretion of IL-6 and hemoglobin production in K562 human leukemia cells. Talley, C.J., Turner, E.A., Hatcher, F.M., Aguinaga, P.M., Chakrabarti, P. Am. J. Hematol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. 8-Cl-cAMP and tiazofurin affect vascular endothelial growth factor production and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in human glioblastoma cells. Drabek, K., Pesić, M., Piperski, V., Ruzdijić, S., Medić-Mijacević, L., Pietrzkowski, Z., Rakić, L. Anticancer Drugs (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Phase I evaluation and pharmacokinetics of tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide, NSC 286193). Melink, T.J., Von Hoff, D.D., Kuhn, J.G., Hersh, M.R., Sternson, L.A., Patton, T.F., Siegler, R., Boldt, D.H., Clark, G.M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Therapeutic synergism of tiazofurin and selected antitumor drugs against sensitive and resistant P388 leukemia in mice. Harrison, S.D., O'Dwyer, P.J., Trader, M.W. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
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