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Chemical Compound Review

propanal     propanal

Synonyms: Propional, Propaldehyde, Propanaldehyde, Propionaldehyd, Propylaldehyde, ...
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Disease relevance of propanal


High impact information on propanal

  • Messenger RNA levels correlated well with hALDH-1 protein levels and enzyme activities (1.5-13.6 milliunits/mg with propionaldehyde/NAD+ substrate, compared to < 1 milliunit/mg in controls) in individual clonal transfectant lines, and slot blot analysis confirmed the presence of the transfected cDNA [4].
  • The dehydrogenase activity of the mitochondrial isozyme (E2) of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase was stimulated about 2-fold by the presence of low concentrations (about 120-140 microM) of Mg2+ in the assay at pH 7.0 using propionaldehyde as substrate [5].
  • To investigate the role of this enzyme in GTN tolerance, cumulative GTN concentration-response curves were obtained for both GTN-tolerant and -nontolerant rat aortic rings treated with the ALDH inhibitor cyanamide or the ALDH substrate propionaldehyde [6].
  • This work describes a novel approach for the analysis of selected aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and acrolein) and acetone in environmental samples using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) [7].
  • Conversely, purified rabbit 2E1 exhibited K(m) and V(max) values for depropylation of 52 microM and 13.4 nmol propionaldehyde/min/nmol P450, respectively [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of propanal


Biological context of propanal


Anatomical context of propanal


Associations of propanal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of propanal

  • The ALDH III isozymes accounted for more than 80% of the total ALDH activities in gastric mucosa and exhibited Km values in the millimolar range for propionaldehyde at pH 9 [26].
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibitory effects of acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde on the growth of this polA mutant were demonstrated [27].
  • The kcat value for the oxidation of propionaldehyde by sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase increased 3-fold, from 0.16 s-1 at pH 7.6 to 0.49 s-1 at pH 5.2, in parallel with the increase in the rate of displacement of NADH from binary enzyme.NADH complexes [12].
  • Reduction of glutathionyl propanal [gammaGlu-Cys(propanal)-Gly] was more efficient than that of Gly-Cys(propanal)-Gly and gamma-aminobutyric acid-Cys(propanal)-Gly suggesting a possible interaction between alpha-carboxyl of the conjugate and AR [28].
  • However, subsequent analysis of hALDH2 activity toward propionaldehyde revealed that both 4ONE and the oxidation product, 4ONEA, were potent, irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of propanal

  • Microgram per m(3) (sub-ppb) levels of the aliphatic aldehydes, propanal, 1-butanal, 1-heptanal, and 1-hexanal, in ambient air were successfully determined by HPLC separation with fluorometric detection [30].
  • Forearm cutaneous blood flow was monitored continuously by laser Doppler velocimetry in 12 normal human subjects before and after a 5-min topical challenge with 5 M propionaldehyde [31].


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  3. PduP is a coenzyme-a-acylating propionaldehyde dehydrogenase associated with the polyhedral bodies involved in B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Leal, N.A., Havemann, G.D., Bobik, T.A. Arch. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. De novo expression of transfected human class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) causes resistance to oxazaphosphorine anti-cancer alkylating agents in hamster V79 cell lines. Elevated class 1 ALDH activity is closely correlated with reduction in DNA interstrand cross-linking and lethality. Bunting, K.D., Townsend, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  12. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of propionaldehyde oxidation by sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase at pH 5.2. Evidence that the release of NADH remains rate-limiting in the enzyme mechanism at acid pH values. Hill, J.P., Blackwell, L.F., Buckley, P.D., Motion, R.L. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic characterization of the pdu operon: use of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella typhimurium. Walter, D., Ailion, M., Roth, J. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  17. Identification of 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde as a potent, reversible inhibitor of mouse and human class I aldehyde dehydrogenase. Russo, J., Chung, S., Contreras, K., Lian, B., Lorenz, J., Stevens, D., Trousdell, W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparative subcellular distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase in rat, mouse and rabbit liver. Lindahl, R., Evces, S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Biotransformations of R-(+)-pulegone and menthofuran in vitro: chemical basis for toxicity. Madyastha, K.M., Raj, C.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  21. Kinetic properties of highly purified preparations of sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase. Hart, G.J., Dickinson, F.M. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of pyrophosphate ions and alkaline pH on the kinetics of propionaldehyde oxidation by sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase. Hill, J.P., Buckley, P.D., Blackwell, L.F., Motion, R.L. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. The binding of NADH to cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase after modification with p-nitrophenyl dimethylcarbamate. Kitson, T.M. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Drug metabolism in isolated proximal tubule cells: aldehyde dehydrogenase. Hjelle, J.T., Petersen, D.R., Hjelle, J.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Organ-specific expressions and chromosomal locations of two mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.), ALDH2a and ALDH2b. Tsuji, H., Tsutsumi, N., Sasaki, T., Hirai, A., Nakazono, M. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Human stomach alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH): a genetic model proposed for ALDH III isozymes. Yin, S.J., Cheng, T.C., Chang, C.P., Chen, Y.J., Chao, Y.C., Tang, H.S., Chang, T.M., Wu, C.W. Biochem. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. DNA polymerase I function is required for the utilization of ethanolamine, 1,2-propanediol, and propionate by Salmonella typhimurium LT2. Rondon, M.R., Horswill, A.R., Escalante-Semerena, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective recognition of glutathiolated aldehydes by aldose reductase. Ramana, K.V., Dixit, B.L., Srivastava, S., Balendiran, G.K., Srivastava, S.K., Bhatnagar, A. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by 4-hydroxynon-2-enal and 4-oxonon-2-enal. Doorn, J.A., Hurley, T.D., Petersen, D.R. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Polymer-mediated extraction of the fluorescent compounds derived by Hantzsch reaction with dimedone for the sensitive determination of aliphatic aldehydes in air. Saitoh, T., Suzuki, S., Hiraide, M. Journal of chromatography. A (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Periodic cutaneous blood flow during aldehyde-provoked hyperemia. Wilkin, J.K. Microvasc. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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