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Chemical Compound Review

tyramine     4-(2-aminoethyl)phenol

Synonyms: Tocosine, Systogene, Tyramin, Uteramine, Tyrosamine, ...
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Disease relevance of p-Tyramine


Psychiatry related information on p-Tyramine


High impact information on p-Tyramine


Chemical compound and disease context of p-Tyramine


Biological context of p-Tyramine


Anatomical context of p-Tyramine


Associations of p-Tyramine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of p-Tyramine

  • The finding that the administration of an aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor leads to a decrease of p-tyramine gives further evidence that this amine is synthesized from p-tyrosine, which is also found in high concentrations in the lobster nerve cord [25].
  • DA, Hill coefficient 1.0, and its analogs 3-hydroxyphenethylamine and 4-hydroxyphenethylamine attenuated the effects of PG on the DAT while phenethylamine did not [26].
  • 2. Urinary excretion of conjugated p-tyramine was not significantly different between normal, melancholic and non-melancholic depressed subjects [27].
  • The IC50 values for all the other compounds were in the micromolar range and were different at the two binding sites except for p-tyramine (IC50, 5-HT1 = IC50, 5-HT2 = 17 microM [28].
  • PPA can also inhibit MAO-A activity in vivo at relatively high dose (50 mg/kg, i.p.), which was determined from an observation that PPA can protect MAO from the irreversible MAO inhibitor clorgyline. p-Tyramine levels were found to be increased in the urine after i.p. administration of PPA [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of p-Tyramine

  • Normalized p-tyramine for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after treatment were not significantly different from their respective before-treatment values for any of the dose groups [7].
  • When injected ip, p-tyramine reduced serum PRL without altering LH and TSH serum titers in adult orchidectomized rats and rats subjected to ether or immobilization stress [17].


  1. Pressor amines and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors for treatment of postural hypotension in autonomic failure. Limitations and hazards. Davies, B., Bannister, R., Sever, P. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential responsiveness of LH and prolactin to p-tyramine in male and female rats. Becú-Villalobos, D., Libertun, C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Urinary p-tyramine in hereditary tyrosinemia: I. Levels as compared to normal individuals, effect of diet, and relationship to urinary tyrosine. Hoag, G.N., Hill, A., Zaleski, W. Clin. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Correlation of platelet MAO activity with introversion: a study on a German rural population. Demisch, L., Georgi, K., Patzke, B., Demisch, K., Bochnik, H.J. Psychiatry research. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Release and receptor stimulating properties of p-tyramine in rat brain. Stoof, J.C., Liem, A.L., Mulder, A.H. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Substrate-typic changes of platelet monoamine oxidase activity in sub-types of schizophrenia. Demisch, L., von der Mühlen, H., Bochnik, H.J., Seiler, N. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Kinetics and metabolism of p-tyramine during monoamine oxidase inhibition by mofegiline. Huebert, N.D., Dulery, B.D., Schoun, J., Schwach, V., Hinze, C., Haegele, K.D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Mammalian central nervous system trace amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators. Berry, M.D. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Oxidation of phenethylamine derivatives by cytochrome P450 2D6: the issue of substrate protonation in binding and catalysis. Miller, G.P., Hanna, I.H., Nishimura, Y., Guengerich, F.P. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of aging on p- and m-octopamine, catecholamines, and their metabolizing enzymes in the rat. David, J.C., Coulon, J.F., Cavoy, A., Delacour, J. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Prolactin inhibition by p-tyramine in the male rat: site of action. Becú-Villalobos, D., Vacas, M.I., Libertun, C. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of tyramine on salivary flow rate and protein secretion by rat submandibular glands. Okina, A., Hidaka, S., Tashiro, M., Abe, K. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. A rapid functional assay for the human trace amine-associated receptor 1 based on the mobilization of internal calcium. Navarro, H.A., Gilmour, B.P., Lewin, A.H. Journal of biomolecular screening : the official journal of the Society for Biomolecular Screening. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of dopamine in behavioral effects of serotonin microinjected into rat striatum. Yeghiayan, S.K., Kelley, A.E., Kula, N.S., Campbell, A., Baldessarini, R.J. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The hydroxylation of p-tyramine in man. Jones, R.A., Pollitt, R.J. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Urinary p-tyramine in hereditary tyrosinemia: II. Origin of urinary p-tyramine. Hoag, G.N., Hill, A., Zaleski, W. Clin. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. p-Tyramine, a natural amine, inhibits prolactin release in vivo. Becú-Villalobos, D., Lacau de Mengido, I.M., Libertun, C. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Pre- and postsynaptic effects of p-tyramine and p-octopamine in the prostatic portion of the rat vas deferens. Celuch, S.M., Juorio, A.V. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and quantitation of N-acetyl metabolites of biogenic amines in the thoracic nervous system of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Macfarlane, R.G., Midgley, J.M., Watson, D.G., Evans, P.D. J. Chromatogr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. The concentration of p- and m-tyramine in the rat mesolimbic system: its regional distribution and effect of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Sardar, A., Juorio, A.V., Boulton, A.A. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Decarboxylation of p-tyrosine: a potential source of p-tyramine in mammalian tissues. Bowsher, R.R., Henry, D.P. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine aminotransferase by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine. Dyck, L.E., Dewar, K.M. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Octopamine and phenylethylamine inhibit prolactin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. Becú-Villalobos, D., Thyssen, S.M., Rey, E.B., Lux-Lantos, V., Libertun, C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Determination of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Kobayashi, K., Koide, Y., Shohmori, T. Clin. Chim. Acta (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. The presence of tyramine and related monoamines in the nerve cord and some other tissues of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Juorio, A.V., Sloley, B.D. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Covalent and noncovalent chemical modifications of arginine residues decrease dopamine transporter activity. Volz, T.J., Kim, M., Schenk, J.O. Synapse (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Deuterium-labelled p-tyramine challenge test and phenolsulfotransferase activity in depressed patients--failure to replicate decreased p-tyramine conjugation in depression. Davis, B.A., Boulton, A.A., Yu, P.H., Durden, D.A., Bowen, R.C., Keegan, D.L., Blackshaw, S., D'Arcy, C., Remillard, A.J., Dayal, N. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Displacement of serotonin from binding sites in rat cortex: the effects of biogenic "trace" amines. Locock, R.A., Baker, G.B., Coutts, R.T., Dewhurst, W.G. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity by phenylpropanolamine, an anorectic agent. Yu, P.H. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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