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Chemical Compound Review

FURA-2     2-[6- (bis(carboxymethyl)amino)-5- [2-[2...

Synonyms: FURA 2, SureCN28430, AG-H-95190, AC1Q5WIF, CTK5H8668, ...
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Disease relevance of FURA-2

  • Gerbil cerebral cortical synaptosomes loaded with the fluorescent calcium probe FURA-2 were used to study depolarization-induced presynaptic cytosolic free calcium concentration, as an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia [1].
  • To characterize the changes in free cytosolic calcium evoked by noxious heat stimuli (< or =51 degrees C, 10s), we performed microfluorometric measurements in acutely dissociated small dorsal root ganglion neurons (< or =32.5 microm) of adult rats using the dye FURA-2 [2].
  • METHODS: We studied the effect of gambierol in human neuroblastoma cells by using bis-oxonol to measure membrane potential and FURA-2 to monitor intracellular calcium [3].
  • Isolated rat parenchymal, endothelial, and Kupffer cells were cultured and changes in intracellular calcium measured in vitro after acute hypothermia (5-8 degrees C) by fluorescence imaging using FURA-2 [4].

High impact information on FURA-2


Chemical compound and disease context of FURA-2


Biological context of FURA-2

  • Here, we have measured IL-8-induced Ca2+ signals in single human neutrophil granulocytes using the Ca2+ indicator dye FURA-2 AM and we have investigated the signal transduction that leads to these Ca2+ signals with various pharmacological tools [11].
  • The FURA-2 fluorescence kinetics were recorded at 340-380 nm [12].
  • As determined by FURA-2 measurement of [Ca2+]I, the cytotoxicity of palmitate on cardiomyocytes did not appear to be mediated through acute increases in [Ca2+]l. In contrast, the unsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid increased [Ca2+]l. The calcium ionophore ionomycin significantly (P < 0.05) increased palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte cell death [13].
  • QUIN 2/AM, BAPTA/AM, EGTA/AM, and FURA 2/AM, at 5 microM, decreased LDH release (at 6 hr) from 41% to 4%, 21%, 26%, and 33%, and decreased lipid peroxidation (at 1 hr) from 1.0 to 0.1, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 nmol MDA/mg protein, respectively, after TBHP exposure [14].

Anatomical context of FURA-2

  • As keratinocyte maturation is regulated by calcium levels, we measured hyperosmotic-stimulus-induced changes of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by single-cell image analysis employing FURA-2/AM [15].
  • Pericytes in suspension were loaded with 2 micromol/l of the Ca2+-sensitive dye FURA-2/AM [12].
  • In single smooth muscle cells loaded with FURA-2, TRIM reduced the increase in fluorescence ratio produced by Tg but had no effect on that produced by high K [16].
  • To investigate the underlying membrane mechanisms, current recordings together with simultaneous calcium measurements using FURA-2 were performed in neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia [17].
  • 1. This study investigates the mechanism of CGRP-induced relaxation in intramural coronary arteries by determining the effect of CGRP on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) using FURA-2 technique [18].

Associations of FURA-2 with other chemical compounds

  • Basal intracellular calcium concentration (FURA 2 assay) was concentration-dependently increased (maximum effect +77%) 30 min, but not 24h after a 10 min glutamate (10-100 microM) treatment, while the net increase induced by electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 10s) was consistently reduced (maximum effect -64%) [19].
  • WIN 55,212-2 was also shown to inhibit the NMDA-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) indicated by FURA-2 fluorescence imaging in the same cultured neurons [20].
  • By using the dye FURA-2 AM, the variations in cytosolic Ca(2+) were studied in peripheral human T lymphocytes isolated from extracted blood from healthy donors [21].
  • Control groups included 6 hours incubation in 4 degrees C Krebs Henseleit solution (n = 5); 6 hours incubation in 26 degrees C FURA-2/AM (n = 5); and 6 hours incubation in epinephrine 10(-7) mol/L (n = 5) [22].
  • Extracellular acidification reduces the Mn(2+) entry, measured by the slope of the quenching of FURA 2 fluorescence at the isoemissive wavelength of 360 nm [23].

Gene context of FURA-2

  • The intracellular distribution of NF aggregates, SOD1 and nNOS was examined by confocal microscopy and NMDA-induced alterations in intracellular calcium levels using either Oregon green fluorescence or FURA-2 photometric imaging [24].
  • The SABP also induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in spermatozoa, as seen by FURA-2 AM studies [25].
  • Using FURA-2 microspectrofluorimetry, this study examines the mobilisation of calcium in CHO cells which had been stably transfected with the long isoform of the human NK1 receptor [26].
  • The effects of different isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on cellular growth and on cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels in mesangial cells using a microfluorometric system and the calcium indicator FURA-2 were investigated [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FURA-2

  • Single cell analysis of calcium fluxes was performed by video-microscopy and ratio-imaging, after cell staining with the fluorescent calcium chelator FURA-2 [28].
  • To determine the cellular mechanisms by which the endothelium-dependent relaxation occurs, we used fura-2 fluorometry (F350 and F390; excitation wavelengths, 350 and 390 nm, respectively) and estimated the intracellular Ba2+ concentration in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells [29].
  • Further, we summarize aspects of the signal transduction cascades possibly linked to different receptor types of the SCO; these studies included the use of calcium imaging (FURA-2 technique), ELISA technique, and immunocytochemistry [30].
  • Isometric tension development and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were measured simultaneously in isolated vessel segments using wire myography and the FURA-2 fluorescence technique [31].


  1. Flunarizine blocks elevation of free cytosolic calcium in synaptosomes following sustained depolarization. Cohan, S.L., Redmond, D.J., Chen, M., Wilson, D., Cyr, P. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in cytosolic calcium in response to noxious heat and their relationship to vanilloid receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Greffrath, W., Kirschstein, T., Nawrath, H., Treede, R. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The sodium channel of human excitable cells is a target for gambierol. Louzao, M.C., Cagide, E., Vieytes, M.R., Sasaki, M., Fuwa, H., Yasumoto, T., Botana, L.M. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes in intracellular calcium induced by acute hypothermia in parenchymal, endothelial, and Kupffer cells of the rat liver. Haddad, P., Cabrillac, J.C., Piche, D., Musallam, L., Huet, P.M. Cryobiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Spreading of human endothelial cells on fibronectin or vitronectin triggers elevation of intracellular free calcium. Schwartz, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Mast cell mediators prostaglandin-D2 and histamine activate human eosinophils. Raible, D.G., Schulman, E.S., DiMuzio, J., Cardillo, R., Post, T.J. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Complex inositol polyphosphate response induced by co-cross-linking of CD4 and Fc gamma receptors in the human monocytoid cell line U937. Guse, A.H., Roth, E., Bröker, B.M., Emmrich, F. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective permeability of different connexin channels to the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Niessen, H., Harz, H., Bedner, P., Krämer, K., Willecke, K. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Two modes of exocytosis from synaptosomes are differentially regulated by protein phosphatase types 2A and 2B. Baldwin, M.L., Rostas, J.A., Sim, A.T. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Proline-glutamate interactions in the CNS. Ortiz, J.G., Cordero, M.L., Rosado, A. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanisms of IL-8-induced Ca2+ signaling in human neutrophil granulocytes. Schorr, W., Swandulla, D., Zeilhofer, H.U. Eur. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Single pericytes and pericytes in suspension are stimulated in a similar way by low-density lipoprotein. Skinner, S., Niederer, E., Locher, R., Vetter, W. J. Hypertens. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Modulation of palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte cell death by interventions that alter intracellular calcium. Rabkin, S.W., Huber, M., Krystal, G. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Intracellular calcium chelators and oxidant-induced renal proximal tubule cell death. Schnellmann, R.G. J. Biochem. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. A hyperosmotic stimulus elevates intracellular calcium and inhibits proliferation of a human keratinocyte cell line. Dascalu, A., Matithyou, A., Oron, Y., Korenstein, R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Selective inhibition of thapsigargin-induced contraction and capacitative calcium entry in mouse anococcygeus by trifluoromethylphenylimidazole (TRIM). Gibson, A., Fernandes, F., Wallace, P., McFadzean, I. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Rises in [Ca2+]i mediate capsaicin- and proton-induced heat sensitization of rat primary nociceptive neurons. Guenther, S., Reeh, P.W., Kress, M. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanism of CGRP-induced relaxation in rat intramural coronary arteries. Sheykhzade, M., Berg Nyborg, N.C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Early and delayed glutamate effects in rat primary cortical neurons. Changes in the subcellular distribution of protein kinase C isoforms and in intracellular calcium concentration. Siniscalchi, A., Marino, S., Marani, L., Piubello, C., Bianchi, C., Selvatici, R. Neurochem. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Cannabinoids produce neuroprotection by reducing intracellular calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive stores. Zhuang, S.Y., Bridges, D., Grigorenko, E., McCloud, S., Boon, A., Hampson, R.E., Deadwyler, S.A. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Prolactin induces calcium influx and release from intracellular pools in human T lymphocytes by activation of tyrosine kinases. Alfonso, A., Botana, M.A., Vieytes, M.R., Botana, L.M. Cell. Signal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of triiodothyronine on myocardial contractile performance after epinephrine exposure: implications for donor heart management. Timek, T., Bonz, A., Dillmann, R., Vahl, C.F., Hagl, S. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Capacitative calcium influx and intracellular pH cross-talk in human platelets. Gende, O.A. Platelets (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequestration of nNOS in neurofilamentous aggregate bearing neurons in vitro leads to enhanced NMDA-mediated calcium influx. Sanelli, T.R., Sopper, M.M., Strong, M.J. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of capacitation in human spermatozoa in vitro by an endometrial sialic acid-binding protein. Banerjee, M., Chowdhury, M. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Thapsigargin blocks the mobilisation of intracellular calcium caused by activation of human NK1 (long) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seabrook, G.R., Fong, T.M. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. PDGF-BB, but not PDGF-AA, stimulates calcium mobilization, activation of calcium channels and cell proliferation in cultured rat mesangial cells. Wallmon, A., Fellström, B., Larsson, R., Floege, J., Topley, N., Ljunghall, S. Exp. Nephrol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. The RGD-containing domain of exogenous HIV-1 Tat inhibits the engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells. Zocchi, M.R., Poggi, A., Rubartelli, A. AIDS (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Direct activation of endothelial NO pathway by Ba2+ in canine coronary artery. Yamazaki, J., Sato, K., Ohara, F., Nagao, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Presence and functional significance of neuropeptide and neurotransmitter receptors in subcommissural organ cells. Nürnberger, F., Schöniger, S. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Ca(2+) sensitisation of force production by noradrenaline in femoral conductance and resistance arteries from rats with postinfarction congestive heart failure. Trautner, S., Amtorp, O., Boesgaard, S., Andersen, C.B., Galbo, H., Haunsoe, S., Sheykhzade, M. Vascul. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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