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Chemical Compound Review

AC1O5S54     methyl(2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3- methyl-9-(3...

Synonyms: 29044-58-4, Juvenile hormone, DL-Juvenile hormone
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Disease relevance of Juvenile hormone


Psychiatry related information on Juvenile hormone

  • The commitment of cells to pupal development in the larvae of holometabolous insects can be prevented by treatment with juvenile hormone (JH) or a JH mimic during a critical period early in the last larval instar [4].
  • Juvenile hormone, stored in male accessory sex glands (ASG), may be transferred to the female during copulation, but the physiological significance of the JH transfer remains unclear [5].
  • It is also known that both the insulin pathway and JH play a role in the control of sexual dimorphism in locomotor activity [6].

High impact information on Juvenile hormone

  • Vitellogenins are yolk protein precursors that are synthesised in the liver of lower vertebrates in response to ovarian hormones, and in the fat body tissue of insects, under the influence, in most species, of juvenile hormone (JH) from the corpora allata (CA) [7].
  • In insects, on the other hand, because the CA of adults of both sexes are active, it appeared that male fat body could not normally respond to JH by synthesising vitellogenin [7].
  • We report here that synthesis of vitellogenin can indeed be induced in males of Diploptera by implantation of female CA or application of Diploptera by implantation of female CA or application of a JH analogue, ZR512 (Zoecon), and that implanted oocytes take up the vitellogenin [7].
  • Letter: Juvenile hormone and pest control [8].
  • Subspecies differences in onset age of foraging were correlated with differences in JH and JH-target gene expression, suggesting that this endocrine system mediates the genetic differences [9].

Biological context of Juvenile hormone


Anatomical context of Juvenile hormone

  • MN-1 and MN-3 show different times of JH sensitivity, which appear to be correlated with different times of neurite outgrowth [15].
  • Juvenile hormone regulation of mRNA levels for a highly abundant hemolymph protein in larval Trichoplusia ni [16].
  • We showed that JH increased mushroom body neuroblast (MBNb) proliferation, confirming the mitogenic effect of JH observed in vivo [17].
  • We explored the stability of this neuropil expansion and its possible dependence on JH [18].
  • Juvenile hormone binding by components of fat body cytosol from vitellogenic locusts [19].

Associations of Juvenile hormone with other chemical compounds

  • Both farnesol and JH stimulated INV and transglutaminase promoter activity, suggesting regulation at the transcriptional level [20].
  • The isoprenoids farnesol and juvenile hormone III (JH), metabolites of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, have been shown to stimulate fetal epidermal development in rodents [20].
  • There are major changes in the sensitivity of corpora allata from the cockroach Diploptera punctata toward the allatostatic tridecapeptide APSGAQRLYGFGL-amide (ASAL) during the female reproductive cycle, as revealed by measurement of juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis in vitro [21].
  • The behavioral shift from nest-task to foraging activity is accompanied by physiological and sensory changes so that foragers can be characterized by a higher juvenile hormone (JH) level, a lower vitellogenin protein titer, and an increased responsiveness to water and sucrose stimuli [22].
  • Allatostatins VI and VII also resemble the other allatostatins in their ability to affect both larval and adult CA, in the reversibility of their effect, and in the abolition of their effect by addition of farnesoic acid (a late precursor of JH) to CA in vitro [23].

Gene context of Juvenile hormone


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Juvenile hormone

  • In bioassays, the Y/FXFGL-NH(2) allatostatins did not inhibit JH synthesis by CA of L. oleracea [29].
  • Juvenile hormone regulation and developmental expression of a Tenebrio desiccation stress protein gene [30].
  • Circulating levels of juvenile hormone (JH) in these drones were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) [31].
  • Gel retardation assay using specific antibody revealed that a PBX protein binds to the JH response element [32].
  • We detected only JH III in these animals in contrast to prior studies in which JH I, II, and/or III had been reported using a different scheme relying on HPLC purification and subsequent GC/MS analysis under chemical ionization (CI) conditions [33].


  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of insect juvenile hormone mimetic compounds. Nakayama, A., Iwamura, H., Fujita, T. J. Med. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression and characterization of the recombinant juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta. Debernard, S., Morisseau, C., Severson, T.F., Feng, L., Wojtasek, H., Prestwich, G.D., Hammock, B.D. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Juvenile hormone regulates oviposition in Drosophila exposed to heat stress. Gruntenko, N.E., Karpova, E.K., Rauschenbach, I.Y. Dokl. Biol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Patterning during pupal commitment of the epidermis in the butterfly, Precis coenia: the role of intercellular communication. Kremen, C. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. On the functional significance of juvenile hormone in the accessory sex glands of male Heliothis virescens. Pszczolkowski, M.A., Tucker, A., Srinivasan, A., Ramaswamy, S.B. J. Insect Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Hmgcr in the Corpus Allatum Controls Sexual Dimorphism of Locomotor Activity and Body Size via the Insulin Pathway in Drosophila. Belgacem, Y.H., Martin, J.R. PLoS ONE (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of vitellogenin and growth of implanted oocytes in male cockroaches. Mundall, E.C., Tobe, S.S., Stay, B. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Letter: Juvenile hormone and pest control. Staal, G.B., Nassar, S.G. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Inaugural Article: Genomic dissection of behavioral maturation in the honey bee. Whitfield, C.W., Ben-Shahar, Y., Brillet, C., Leoncini, I., Crauser, D., Leconte, Y., Rodriguez-Zas, S., Robinson, G.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Insecticide resistance resulting from an absence of target-site gene product. Wilson, T.G., Ashok, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. A microarray analysis of genes involved in relating egg production to nutritional intake in Drosophila melanogaster. Terashima, J., Bownes, M. Cell Death Differ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of affinity-purified juvenile hormone esterase from the plasma of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Venkatesh, K., Abdel-Aal, Y.A., Armstrong, F.B., Roe, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Juvenile hormone diol kinase. I. Purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of juvenile hormone-selective diol kinase from Manduca sexta. Maxwell, R.A., Welch, W.H., Schooley, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Hormonal cross talk in insect development. Dubrovsky, E.B. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Hormonal regulation of the shape of identified motoneurons in the moth Manduca sexta. Truman, J.W., Reiss, S.E. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Juvenile hormone regulation of mRNA levels for a highly abundant hemolymph protein in larval Trichoplusia ni. Jones, G., Hiremath, S.T., Hellmann, G.M., Rhoads, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of hormones and growth factors on the proliferation of adult cricket neural progenitor cells in vitro. Malaterre, J., Strambi, C., Aouane, A., Strambi, A., Rougon, G., Cayre, M. J. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Limits on volume changes in the mushroom bodies of the honey bee brain. Fahrbach, S.E., Farris, S.M., Sullivan, J.P., Robinson, G.E. J. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Juvenile hormone binding by components of fat body cytosol from vitellogenic locusts. Roberts, P.E., Wyatt, G.R. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Farnesol stimulates differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes via PPARalpha. Hanley, K., Kömüves, L.G., Ng, D.C., Schoonjans, K., He, S.S., Lau, P., Bikle, D.D., Williams, M.L., Elias, P.M., Auwerx, J., Feingold, K.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Changes in the sensitivity of adult cockroach corpora allata to a brain allatostatin. Pratt, G.E., Farnsworth, D.E., Feyereisen, R. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity increases the gustatory responsiveness of honey bee workers (Apis mellifera). Amdam, G.V., Norberg, K., Page, R.E., Erber, J., Scheiner, R. Behav. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Two new allatostatins from the brains of Diploptera punctata. Woodhead, A.P., Khan, M.A., Stay, B., Tobe, S.S. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The early gene Broad is involved in the ecdysteroid hierarchy governing vitellogenesis of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Chen, L., Zhu, J., Sun, G., Raikhel, A.S. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Juvenile hormone potentiates ecdysone receptor-dependent transcription in a mammalian cell culture system. Henrich, V.C., Burns, E., Yelverton, D.P., Christensen, E., Weinberger, C. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Common functional elements of Drosophila melanogaster seminal peptides involved in reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster and Helicoverpa armigera females. Fan, Y., Rafaeli, A., Moshitzky, P., Kubli, E., Choffat, Y., Applebaum, S.W. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis in wild-type and apterous mutant Drosophila. Altaratz, M., Applebaum, S.W., Richard, D.S., Gilbert, L.I., Segal, D. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Juvenile hormone stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity during vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Birnbaum, M.J., Gilbert, L.I. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Morphological and physiological comparisons of two types of allatostatin in the brain and retrocerebral complex of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Audsley, N., Duve, H., Thorpe, A., Weaver, R.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Juvenile hormone regulation and developmental expression of a Tenebrio desiccation stress protein gene. Graham, L.A., Bendena, W.G., Walker, V.K. Dev. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Expansion of the neuropil of the mushroom bodies in male honey bees is coincident with initiation of flight. Fahrbach, S.E., Giray, T., Farris, S.M., Robinson, G.E. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. The homeodomain protein PBX participates in JH-related suppressive regulation on the expression of major plasma protein genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Ogawa, N., Kishimoto, A., Asano, T., Izumi, S. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Detection of only JH III in several life-stages of Nauphoeta cinerea and Thermobia domestica. Baker, F.C., Lanzrein, B., Miller, C.A., Tsai, L.W., Jamieson, G.C., Schooley, D.A. Life Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
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