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Chemical Compound Review

Lomidine     4-[5-(4-carbamimidoylphenoxy) pentoxy]benze...

Synonyms: Nebupent, PENTAM, Prestwick_857, Pentam 300, PubChem20964, ...
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Disease relevance of pentamidine


High impact information on pentamidine


Chemical compound and disease context of pentamidine


Biological context of pentamidine


Anatomical context of pentamidine


Associations of pentamidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pentamidine

  • The intralesional expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-13, IL-10, and interferon-gamma) was analyzed in 65 patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis before specific treatment with pentamidine isethionate [30].
  • The study of the induction of apoptosis was carried out by 4'-6-diamidine-2'-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of segmented nuclei, western blot of p53 protein and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, while the interaction with DNA was evaluated through the analysis of interstrand cross-link (ISCL) formation [31].
  • Preincubation of CD4 lymphocytes with pentamidine isethionate at a concentration of 1.5 mg/L then removal from incubation medium prior to addition of HIV-1, or incubation of cells with the drug and virus simultaneously, increased HIV-1 DNA load but reduced p24 antigen release [32].
  • Each of the three diamidines investigated (pentamidine isothionate, amicarbilide and M and B 4596) exhibited marked antileishmanial activity, but only M and B 4596 had any significant effect (36% inhibition at 33 microgram/ml) on L. m. mexicana amastigote proteinase activity [33].
  • The aromatic diamidine berenil specifically inhibits the condensation of a subset of constitutive heterochromatin in human lymphocyte cultures [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pentamidine


  1. Pentamidine-associated fatal acute pancreatitis. Zuger, A., Wolf, B.Z., el-Sadr, W., Simberkoff, M.S., Rahal, J.J. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Unexplained immunodeficiency in children. A surveillance report. Thomas, P.A., Jaffe, H.W., Spira, T.J., Reiss, R., Guerrero, I.C., Auerbach, D. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Risk factors for hypoglycemia associated with pentamidine therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Waskin, H., Stehr-Green, J.K., Helmick, C.G., Sattler, F.R. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Amphotericin versus pentamidine in antimony-unresponsive kala-azar. Mishra, M., Biswas, U.K., Jha, D.N., Khan, A.B. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhaled or reduced-dose intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A pilot study. Conte, J.E., Hollander, H., Golden, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Intravenous or inhaled pentamidine for treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. A randomized trial. Conte, J.E., Chernoff, D., Feigal, D.W., Joseph, P., McDonald, C., Golden, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Pentamidine isethionate reduces Ia expression and antigen presentation by Langerhans cells and inhibits the contact hypersensitivity reaction. Blaylock, B.L., Kouchi, Y., Comment, C.E., Corsini, E., Rosenthal, G.J., Luster, M.I. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Ventricular tachycardia due to pentamidine isethionate. Pujol, M., Carratala, J., Mauri, J., Viladrich, P.F. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hughes, W.T. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Torsade de pointes during administration of pentamidine isethionate. Wharton, J.M., Demopulos, P.A., Goldschlager, N. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective randomized trial. Wharton, J.M., Coleman, D.L., Wofsy, C.B., Luce, J.M., Blumenfeld, W., Hadley, W.K., Ingram-Drake, L., Volberding, P.A., Hopewell, P.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute pancreatitis associated with pentamidine therapy. Murphey, S.A., Josephs, A.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Targeting of Toxic Compounds to the Trypanosome's Interior. Barrett, M.P., Gilbert, I.H. Adv. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Trypanocidal and antitumour activity of platinum-metal and platinum-metal-drug dual-function complexes. Farrell, N.P., Williamson, J., McLaren, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of the proteinase activity in mastitic milk. Fang, W., Sandholm, M. J. Dairy Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Cooperative dimerization of a heterocyclic diamidine determines sequence-specific DNA recognition. Tanious, F., Wilson, W.D., Wang, L., Kumar, A., Boykin, D.W., Marty, C., Baldeyrou, B., Bailly, C. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Recognition of ATGA sequences by the unfused aromatic dication DB293 forming stacked dimers in the DNA minor groove. Bailly, C., Tardy, C., Wang, L., Armitage, B., Hopkins, K., Kumar, A., Schuster, G.B., Boykin, D.W., Wilson, W.D. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of azotemia in dogs on the pharmacokinetics of pentamidine. Navin, T.R., Dickinson, C.M., Adams, S.R., Mayersohn, M., Juranek, D.D. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Resistance to pentamidine in Leishmania mexicana involves exclusion of the drug from the mitochondrion. Basselin, M., Denise, H., Coombs, G.H., Barrett, M.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Accumulation and intracellular distribution of antitrypanosomal diamidine compounds DB75 and DB820 in African trypanosomes. Mathis, A.M., Holman, J.L., Sturk, L.M., Ismail, M.A., Boykin, D.W., Tidwell, R.R., Hall, J.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of pentamidine salts on the respiratory burst of human neutrophilic granulocytes. Arnott, M.A., Hay, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Activity of terbinafine against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and its efficacy in the treatment of experimental pneumonia. Contini, C., Manganaro, M., Romani, R., Tzantzoglou, S., Poggesi, I., Vullo, V., Delia, S., De Simone, C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Pancreatitis in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection. Miller, T.L., Winter, H.S., Luginbuhl, L.M., Orav, E.J., McIntosh, K. J. Pediatr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Fluoro-gold and pentamidine inhibit the in vitro and in vivo release of dopamine in the striatum of rat. Bowyer, J.F., Gough, B., Broening, H.W., Newport, G.D., Schmued, L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) trends in the United States, 1978-1982. Selik, R.M., Haverkos, H.W., Curran, J.W. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Highly active anti-Pneumocystis carinii compounds in a library of novel piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines and related compounds. Cushion, M.T., Walzer, P.D., Collins, M.S., Rebholz, S., Vanden Eynde, J.J., Mayence, A., Huang, T.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Binding-linked protonation of a DNA minor-groove agent. Nguyen, B., Stanek, J., Wilson, W.D. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Uptake of the nitroimidazole drug megazol by African trypanosomes. Barrett, M.P., Fairlamb, A.H., Rousseau, B., Chauvière, G., Perié, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of intermediates of methionine metabolism and nucleoside analogs on S-adenosylmethionine transport by Trypanosoma brucei brucei and a drug-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Goldberg, B., Rattendi, D., Lloyd, D., Sufrin, J.R., Bacchi, C.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. High intralesional interleukin-10 messenger RNA expression in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is associated with unresponsiveness to treatment. Bourreau, E., Prévot, G., Gardon, J., Pradinaud, R., Launois, P. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Preliminary evaluation in vitro of the inhibition of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis by 1,4-bis(1-naphthyl)-2,3-dinitro-1,3-butadiene. Viale, M., Mariggiò, M.A., Ottone, M., Chiavarina, B., Vinella, A., Prevosto, C., Dell'Erba, C., Petrillo, G., Novi, M. Investigational new drugs. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. HIV-induced cytopathology and viral load in a pentamidine-treated lymphocytic cell line. Arnott, M.A., Hay, J., Peutherer, J.F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Proteinase inhibitors as antileishmanial agents. Coombs, G.H., Hart, D.T., Capaldo, J. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Berenil-induced undercondensation in human heterochromatin. Haaf, T., Feichtinger, W., Guttenbach, M., Sanchez, L., Müller, C.R., Schmid, M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Diagnosis by lung biopsy. Rosen, P.P., Martini, N., Armstrong, D. Am. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. Thiophene-based diamidine forms a "super" at binding minor groove agent. Mallena, S., Lee, M.P., Bailly, C., Neidle, S., Kumar, A., Boykin, D.W., Wilson, W.D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Biological profile and response to anti-pneumocystis agents of Pneumocystis carinii in cell culture. Pifer, L.L., Pifer, D.D., Woods, D.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Failure of pentamidine isethionate to provide chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocytis carinii infection in rats. Western, K.A., Norman, L., Kaufmann, A.G. J. Infect. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
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