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Gene Review

CIT  -  citron rho-interacting serine/threonine...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CRIK, Citron Rho-interacting kinase, KIAA0949, STK21, Serine/threonine-protein kinase 21
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Disease relevance of CIT

  • The amount of insulin/body weight (units per kg) was higher in the IIT group than that in the CIT group (1.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 U/kg; P < 0.05) [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS--Intensive CIT, when combined with CBG measurements, can be used to rapidly improve glycemic control in type II diabetes without development of unacceptable hypoglycemia [2].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum levels of CIT (a nonprotein amino acid synthesized by the intestine) correlate with total parenteral nutrition (PN)-independence in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) [3].
  • Striatal FP-CIT binding correlated significantly with the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) but not with age, disease duration, or gender [4].
  • Successful antiparkinsonian medication withdrawal in patients with Parkinsonism and normal FP-CIT SPECT [5].

Psychiatry related information on CIT

  • Dopamine transporter loss visualized with FP-CIT SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies [6].
  • This column discusses ways that states can implement community-based best practices statewide, by using the crisis intervention team (CIT) model as an example [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a CIT partnership between the police department, the mental health system, consumers of services, and their family members can help in efforts to assist persons who are experiencing a mental illness crisis to gain access to the treatment system, where such individuals most often are best served [8].
  • This study determined changes in knowledge, attitudes, and social distance related to schizophrenia among police officers after CIT training [9].

High impact information on CIT

  • When expressed in keratinocytes, full-length CRIK, but not CRIK-SK, localizes into corpuscular cytoplasmic structures and elicits recruitment of actin into these structures [10].
  • The authors show normal striatal uptake of the dopamine transporter ligand FP-CIT with SPECT in a clinically atypical case of DRD, in contrast to the reduced uptake observed in JP [11].
  • The nocturnal diastolic blood pressure was higher in the IIT group (66 +/- 9 mm Hg) than in the CIT group (55 +/- 4 mm Hg; P < 0.01) [1].
  • The nocturnal heart rate was higher in IIT group than in the CIT group (81 +/- 12 vs. 67 +/- 9/min; P < 0.05) [1].
  • RESULTS: Significant reductions (P<.001) in FP-CIT binding occurred in the caudate and anterior and posterior putamens in subjects with DLB compared with subjects with AD and controls [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of CIT


Biological context of CIT

  • RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic parameters (CIT, Vdss, t1/2) and areas under the curve (AUC) were comparable to those obtained by Ardiet et al after rapid IV injection [14].
  • An equilibrium analysis of the A1(III)-SA (1:1), A1(III)-CIT (1:1) and A1(III)-SA-CIT (1:1:1) systems indicated the occurrence of hydrolysis and polymerization reactions in each one of them [15].
  • Food intake, body weight, HbA1c levels and serum lipids were recorded during conventional s.c. insulin injection treatment (CIT) and after 1 month or 14 months of CSII, respectively [16].
  • 6. More focused attention on sensitization and lowered CIT can both have a significant effect on short-term graft survival rates [17].
  • HCV-TP patients had less severe thrombocytopenia, defined as platelet count </=10 x 10(9)/l (4% vs. 46% for CITP, P </= 0.001) [18].

Anatomical context of CIT

  • No significant difference in lymphocyte suppressor activity could be demonstrated between patients and controls, or between CT and CIT [19].
  • Control monocytes also acted as helper cells, but to a significantly lesser degree than CIT monocytes [19].
  • Furthermore, we show that aqueous CIT extracts decrease the DNA-synthesis of human T cells and mononuclear cells and inhibit the proliferation rate of the human T cell line KARPAS-299 in a dose-dependent manner [20].
  • Hyperechogenic signal of substantia nigra (SN) in transcranial sonography (TCS) and reduced striatal uptake in FP-CIT SPECT are common findings in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) [21].
  • The presented data shows that CITP-CZE can be performed in uncoated capillaries in the presence of strong EOF [22].

Associations of CIT with chemical compounds

  • The CIT dianion represents a nitrogen-rich binary CN dianion, and 5 forms monoclinic crystals (a = 7.345(2) Angstroms, b = 9.505(2) Angstroms, c = 10.198(2) Angstroms, beta = 92.12(3) degrees, space group P2(1)/n, Z = 4) [23].
  • The order of the stabilities (log KML) of their A1(III) chelates are SA (13.7) less than EDTA (15.3) less than CIT (18.0) less than EDDHA (24.5) approximately equal to HBED (24.8) [15].
  • For all patients, AUC, CIT, Vdss, t1/2 beta and MRT were significantly correlated with creatinine clearance; the different pharmacokinetic parameters calculated showed great interindividual variations [14].
  • CIT, DTPA and EDTA caused a notable increase of the interfacial energy at a concentration of 0.5 mmol l(-1) [24].
  • Furthermore, CIT very efficiently blocked aragonite growth contrary to what was observed for calcite [25].

Physical interactions of CIT

  • CONCLUSION: Patients with GTS show higher striatal binding of FP-CIT to the striatum in comparison with age- and gender-matched control subjects, indicating that dopamine transporter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of GTS [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CIT

  • Kinase activity of endogenous CRIK is indicated by in vitro kinase assays after immunoprecipitation with antibodies recognizing the Citron moiety of the protein [10].
  • There does appear to be a synergistic effect between CsA Css and CIT, since the incidence of DGF was significantly higher when the cold ischemia time was 21-24 hr and CsA Css greater than 200 ng/ml [27].
  • DESIGN: Cohort study comparing FP-CIT with criterion standard of consensus clinical diagnosis [6].
  • A SPET scan was carried out with a single slice, brain dedicated tomograph (SME 810) 3.5 hours after intravenous injection of 185 MBq FP-CIT [28].
  • For quantification purposes, we calculated the striatum/posterior lobe binding of FP-CIT and the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) count ratio regarding MIBG scintigraphy [4].


  1. Nocturnal blood pressure elevation in patients with type 1 diabetes receiving intensive insulin therapy compared with that in patients receiving conventional insulin therapy. Azar, S.T., Birbari, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Intensive conventional insulin therapy for type II diabetes. Metabolic effects during a 6-mo outpatient trial. Henry, R.R., Gumbiner, B., Ditzler, T., Wallace, P., Lyon, R., Glauber, H.S. Diabetes Care (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum citrulline levels correlate with enteral tolerance and bowel length in infants with short bowel syndrome. Rhoads, J.M., Plunkett, E., Galanko, J., Lichtman, S., Taylor, L., Maynor, A., Weiner, T., Freeman, K., Guarisco, J.L., Wu, G.Y. J. Pediatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. FP-CIT and MIBG scintigraphy in early Parkinson's disease. Spiegel, J., Möllers, M.O., Jost, W.H., Fuss, G., Samnick, S., Dillmann, U., Becker, G., Kirsch, C.M. Mov. Disord. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Successful antiparkinsonian medication withdrawal in patients with Parkinsonism and normal FP-CIT SPECT. Marshall, V.L., Patterson, J., Hadley, D.M., Grosset, K.A., Grosset, D.G. Mov. Disord. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Dopamine transporter loss visualized with FP-CIT SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. O'Brien, J.T., Colloby, S., Fenwick, J., Williams, E.D., Firbank, M., Burn, D., Aarsland, D., McKeith, I.G. Arch. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. State mental health policy: statewide implementation of the crisis intervention team program: the ohio model. Munetz, M.R., Morrison, A., Krake, J., Young, B., Woody, L.M. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Crisis intervention team training for police officers responding to mental disturbance calls. Teller, J.L., Munetz, M.R., Gil, K.M., Ritter, C. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Brief reports: crisis intervention team training: changes in knowledge, attitudes, and stigma related to schizophrenia. Compton, M.T., Esterberg, M.L., McGee, R., Kotwicki, R.J., Oliva, J.R. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Citron rho-interacting kinase, a novel tissue-specific ser/thr kinase encompassing the Rho-Rac-binding protein Citron. Di Cunto, F., Calautti, E., Hsiao, J., Ong, L., Topley, G., Turco, E., Dotto, G.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. SPECT imaging of the dopamine transporter in juvenile-onset dystonia. O'Sullivan, J.D., Costa, D.C., Gacinovic, S., Lees, A.J. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Vinblastine and danazol therapy in steroid resistant childhood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Choudhry, V.P., Kashyap, R., Ahlawat, S., Pati, H.P. Int. J. Hematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Oral high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin treatments in adult chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Altintop, L., Albayrak, D. Am. J. Hematol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose melphalan in adults: influence of renal function. Kergueris, M.F., Milpied, N., Moreau, P., Harousseau, J.L., Larousse, C. Anticancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies on the chelation of aluminum for neurobiological application. Rajan, K.S., Mainer, S., Rajan, N.L., Davis, J.M. J. Inorg. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Diet and pump-treated diabetes: a long-term follow-up. Chantelau, E.A., Bockholt, M., Lie, K.T., Broermann, C., Sonnenberg, G.E., Berger, M. Diabète & métabolisme. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. The influence of donor age on kidney graft survival in the 1990s. Cicciarelli, J., Iwaki, Y., Mendez, R. Clinical transplants. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatitis C virus-related thrombocytopenia: clinical and laboratory characteristics compared with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Rajan, S.K., Espina, B.M., Liebman, H.A. Br. J. Haematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Modifying the biological response in acute myeloid leukemia. II. Effect of BCG and leukemic cells on lymphocyte response to mitogens, and on helper and suppressor activity. Arends-Merino, A., Giscombe, R., Ogier, C., Reizenstein, P., Sjörgen, A.M., Wasserman, J. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of human leukocyte function, alanyl aminopeptidase (APN, CD13) and dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DP IV, CD26) enzymatic activities by aqueous extracts of Cistus incanus L. ssp. incanus. Lendeckel, U., Arndt, M., Wolke, C., Reinhold, D., Kähne, T., Ansorge, S. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Transcranial sonography and [123I]FP-CIT SPECT disclose complementary aspects of Parkinson's disease. Spiegel, J., Hellwig, D., Möllers, M.O., Behnke, S., Jost, W., Fassbender, K., Samnick, S., Dillmann, U., Becker, G., Kirsch, C.M. Brain (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of adenosine deaminase activity in human erythrocytes by on-column capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis in the presence of electroosmotic flow. Adam, T., Sevcík, J., Svagera, Z., Fairbanks, L.D., Barták, P. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. The dianion of 5-cyanoiminotetrazoline: C2N62-. Klapötke, T.M., Kuffer, C., Mayer, P., Polborn, K., Schulz, A., Weigand, J.J. Inorganic chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Nucleation of calcium carbonate in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid. Westin, K.J., Rasmuson, A.C. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal growth of aragonite and calcite in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid. Westin, K.J., Rasmuson, A.C. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Dopamine transporter binding in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a [123I]FP-CIT/SPECT study. Serra-Mestres, J., Ring, H.A., Costa, D.C., Gacinovic, S., Walker, Z., Lees, A.J., Robertson, M.M., Trimble, M.R. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The impact of steady-state cyclosporine concentrations on renal allograft outcome. Dunn, J., Grevel, J., Napoli, K., Lewis, R.M., Van Buren, C.T., Kahan, B.D. Transplantation (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease using a dopaminergic presynaptic ligand. Walker, Z., Costa, D.C., Walker, R.W., Shaw, K., Gacinovic, S., Stevens, T., Livingston, G., Ince, P., McKeith, I.G., Katona, C.L. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
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