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Gene Review

CHN1  -  chimerin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A-chimaerin, ARHGAP2, Alpha-chimerin, CHN, DURS2, ...
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Disease relevance of CHN1

  • Strikingly, microinjection of the full-length n-chimaerin into fibroblasts and neuroblastoma cells induces the simultaneous formation of lamellipodia and filopodia [1].
  • In HIV-1, 5'-leader RNA/NC interactions appear to control these viral processes [2].
  • We find that n-chimaerin expressed in the baculovirus system bound [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate with high affinity (0.17 +/- 0.01 nM) [3].
  • Deletion analysis of the carboxy-terminal chimera revealed two small regions within the HIV NC protein that were sufficient for endowing mutant Bg-Bs with these properties [4].
  • The inner core is formed by an outer shell of capsid protein molecules (CA protein) surrounding the dimeric RNA genome in close association with about 2000 molecules of nucleocapsid protein (NC protein) and molecules of reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) [5].

High impact information on CHN1

  • We have previously shown that there is a diversity of GAPs that recognize this subfamily, including n-chimaerin, which is enriched in the hippocampus; we also detected proteins that bind these p21 proteins and seem to inhibit GTP hydrolysis [6].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that n-chimaerin acts synergistically with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs to induce actin-based morphological changes and that this action involves Rac1 and Cdc42Hs binding but not GAP activity [1].
  • The effects of n-chimaerin on formation of lamellipodia and filopodia were inhibited by dominant negative Rac1(T17N) and Cdc42Hs(T17N), respectively. n-Chimaerin's effects were also inhibited by coinjection with Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor or by treatment with phorbol ester [1].
  • The single human n-chimerin gene was mapped to chromosome 2q31-q32.1, colocalizing with the CRE-BP1 transcription factor gene (2q32) [7].
  • n-Chimerin (alpha 1-chimerin) is a brain GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the ras-related p21rac [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of CHN1


Biological context of CHN1

  • Alpha 2-chimerin, an SH2-containing GTPase-activating protein for the ras-related protein p21rac derived by alternate splicing of the human n-chimerin gene, is selectively expressed in brain regions and testes [7].
  • A novel human brain complementary DNA sequence encodes n-chimaerin, a 34,000 Mr protein [9].
  • Retroviruses, including HIV-1 encode a major nucleic acid binding protein (NC protein) found within the virus where 2000 NC protein molecules coat the dimeric genome [2].
  • While both of the two Zn finger motifs found within NC7 were essential for efficient elongation, NC protein that contained a point mutation in the first Zn finger or that was devoid of both Zn fingers yielded primer-template complexes that could still be initiated in 1-base-extension assays [10].
  • Therefore, compensatory mutations within the p2 and NC proteins, distal from deletions within the DIS region of the HIV genome, can restore HIV replication, viral gene expression, and viral RNA packaging to control levels [11].

Anatomical context of CHN1


Associations of CHN1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of CHN1

  • The similarity of two separate regions of n-chimaerin to domains of protein kinase C and BCR has intriguing implications with respect to its evolutionary origins, its function in the brain and potential phorbol-ester-binding properties [9].
  • Eight patients (CHN1) with a S beta 2m < 5 mg/liter had various abnormalities of their urinary protein pattern [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHN1

  • We present here the sequence analysis of m1.7 and its putative product, rnprot1.7, and show that rnprot1.7 is similar to the product of the human n-chimaerin gene, which is expressed in brain and testes [18].
  • Thus, RT-PCR detection of EWS-CHN or TAF2N-CHN fusion gene using archival paraffin-embedded tissue is a feasible and useful ancillary technique for the diagnosis of EMCS [19].
  • Four different methods were evaluated including elemental analysis (CHN), quantitative amino acid analysis (AAA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Kjeldahl [20].
  • Isomers of astaxanthin produced by Thraustochytrium sp. CHN-1 are identified as (3S,3S')-trans-astaxanthin, (3R,3R')-trans-astaxanthin and (3S,3S')-cis-astaxanthin by chirality column HPLC, and 1H and 13C NMR [21].
  • The Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area (CHN), a network of 20 hospitals and 9 community care access centres, assessed one component of its early progress in building a regionalized system of perinatal care [22].


  1. The GTPase-activating protein n-chimaerin cooperates with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs to induce the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Kozma, R., Ahmed, S., Best, A., Lim, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The prion protein has RNA binding and chaperoning properties characteristic of nucleocapsid protein NCP7 of HIV-1. Gabus, C., Derrington, E., Leblanc, P., Chnaiderman, J., Dormont, D., Swietnicki, W., Morillas, M., Surewicz, W.K., Marc, D., Nandi, P., Darlix, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Close similarity of baculovirus-expressed n-chimaerin and protein kinase C alpha as phorbol ester receptors. Areces, L.B., Kazanietz, M.G., Blumberg, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional chimeras of the Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus gag proteins. Bennett, R.P., Nelle, T.D., Wills, J.W. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. First glimpses at structure-function relationships of the nucleocapsid protein of retroviruses. Darlix, J.L., Lapadat-Tapolsky, M., de Rocquigny, H., Roques, B.P. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A non-receptor tyrosine kinase that inhibits the GTPase activity of p21cdc42. Manser, E., Leung, T., Salihuddin, H., Tan, L., Lim, L. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Alpha 2-chimerin, an SH2-containing GTPase-activating protein for the ras-related protein p21rac derived by alternate splicing of the human n-chimerin gene, is selectively expressed in brain regions and testes. Hall, C., Sin, W.C., Teo, M., Michael, G.J., Smith, P., Dong, J.M., Lim, H.H., Manser, E., Spurr, N.K., Jones, T.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhancement of the basal-level activity of HIV-1 long terminal repeat by HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein. Zhang, J.L., Sharma, P.L., Crumpacker, C.S. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Novel human brain cDNA encoding a 34,000 Mr protein n-chimaerin, related to both the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and BCR, the product of the breakpoint cluster region gene. Hall, C., Monfries, C., Smith, P., Lim, H.H., Kozma, R., Ahmed, S., Vanniasingham, V., Leung, T., Lim, L. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein in annealing and initiation versus elongation in reverse transcription of viral negative-strand strong-stop DNA. Rong, L., Liang, C., Hsu, M., Kleiman, L., Petitjean, P., de Rocquigny, H., Roques, B.P., Wainberg, M.A. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Compensatory point mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag region that are distal from deletion mutations in the dimerization initiation site can restore viral replication. Liang, C., Rong, L., Laughrea, M., Kleiman, L., Wainberg, M.A. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Neurohormonal regulation of calcium in the cell. Galoyan, A.A., Kevorkian, G.A., Voskanian, L.H., Alexanian, S.S., Muradian, M.S. Neurochem. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Human brain n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phorbol ester receptor. Ahmed, S., Kozma, R., Monfries, C., Hall, C., Lim, H.H., Smith, P., Lim, L. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel functional target for tumor-promoting phorbol esters and lysophosphatidic acid. The p21rac-GTPase activating protein n-chimaerin. Ahmed, S., Lee, J., Kozma, R., Best, A., Monfries, C., Lim, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural basis for coevolution of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid-p1 cleavage site with a V82A drug-resistant mutation in viral protease. Prabu-Jeyabalan, M., Nalivaika, E.A., King, N.M., Schiffer, C.A. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Synthetic and Structural Studies of Cyclodistib(V)azanes. Copsey, M.C., Gallon, S.B., Grocott, S.K., Jeffery, J.C., Russell, C.A., Slattery, J.M. Inorganic chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Low molecular weight proteinuria in Chinese herbs nephropathy. Kabanda, A., Jadoul, M., Lauwerys, R., Bernard, A., van Ypersele de Strihou, C. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A Drosophila rotund transcript expressed during spermatogenesis and imaginal disc morphogenesis encodes a protein which is similar to human Rac GTPase-activating (racGAP) proteins. Agnel, M., Röder, L., Vola, C., Griffin-Shea, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases. Okamoto, S., Hisaoka, M., Ishida, T., Imamura, T., Kanda, H., Shimajiri, S., Hashimoto, H. Hum. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of assays for determination of peptide content for lyophilized thymalfasin. Vemuri, S. J. Pept. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Growth and carotenoid production of Thraustochytrium sp. CHN-1 cultured under superbright red and blue light-emitting diodes. Yamaoka, Y., Carmona, M.L., Oota, S. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Regionalization reigns--but is care being delivered accordingly? An evaluation of perinatal care delivery in a regionalized child health network. Alidina, S., Ardal, S., Lee, P., Raskin, L., Shennan, A., Young, L.M. Healthcare management forum / Canadian College of Health Service Executives = Forum gestion des soins de sant?? / Coll??ge canadien des directeurs de services de sant??. (2006) [Pubmed]
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