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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

monoprotium     protium

Synonyms: protium(.), AC1NUTIP, Hydrogen atom, CHEBI:29305, p(+)e(-), ...
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Disease relevance of protium

  • Using amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice as a model of amyloid beta amyloidosis, we demonstrate here that an intravenously administered (19)F-containing amyloidophilic compound labels brain plaques and allows them to be visualized in living mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using (19)F and (1)H [1].
  • The sensitivity and specificity of breast (1)H MRS for detecting breast cancer were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 73% to 89%) and 85% (95% CI = 71% to 93%), respectively, and both values could be as high as 92% after technical exclusions [2].
  • The goals of the present study were to examine the effects of mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) on brain metabolic pathways using combined (1)H and (13)C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a technique which allows the study not only of metabolite concentrations but also their de novo synthesis via cell-specific pathways in the brain [3].
  • Here, we study the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host cometabolic phenotypes associated with dietary-induced impaired glucose homeostasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a mouse strain (129S6) known to be susceptible to these disease traits, using plasma and urine metabotyping, achieved by (1)H NMR spectroscopy [4].
  • From t = 50 min to t = 90 min, spin-echo (1)H SI was performed with an echo time of 40 ms in a 2.5-mm slice including the glioma (nominal voxel size, 2.2 microl) [5].

Psychiatry related information on protium


High impact information on protium

  • Crystallographic ((1)H, (15)N), NMR, and mutagenetic data reveal that the weaker interaction of the C-terminal region of beta-thymosin/WH2 domain with actin accounts for the switch in function from inhibition to promotion of actin assembly [11].
  • One-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicates that Mn(2+) binds in the vicinity of the heme 6-propionate as anticipated, and potentiometric titrations establish that the affinity of the new site for Mn(2+) is 1.28(4) x 10(4) M(-1) (pH 6.96, ionic strength I = 17.2 microM, 25 degrees C) [12].
  • (1)H and (13)C MAS NMR evidence for pronounced ligand-protein interactions involving the ionone ring of the retinylidene chromophore in rhodopsin [13].
  • Results from independent experiments support the APIase activity of DnaK: (i) exchange crosspeaks between the cis-trans conformers appear in 2D (1)H NMR exchange spectra of oligopeptides (ii) the rate constants for the cis-trans isomerization of various dipeptides increase and (iii) refolding of the RNase T1 P39A variant is catalyzed [14].
  • Biochemical analysis of the patient's serum and urine, using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy, revealed that his levels of dimethylglycine were much higher than control values [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of protium

  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) of neuroblastoma cells treated with COX inhibitors demonstrated accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and depletion of choline compounds [16].
  • Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by distances derived from 24 (1)H NOEs between IQ and DNA, and torsion angles derived from (3)J couplings, yielded ensembles of structures in which the adducted guanine was displaced into the major groove with its glycosyl torsion angle in the syn conformation [17].
  • The active-site structures of Cu(II) plastocyanins (PCu's) from a higher plant (parsley), a seedless vascular plant (fern, Dryopteris crassirhizoma), a green alga (Ulva pertusa), and cyanobacteria (Anabaena variabilis and Synechococcus) have been investigated by paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectroscopy [18].
  • Recombinant HIV-1 protease was obtained from bacteria grown on a 98% D(2)O medium containing 3-(13)C pyruvic acid as the sole source of (13)C and (1)H [19].
  • The two metal sites in cadmium substituted beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 have been studied by NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (15)N, and (113)Cd) and PAC spectroscopy ((111m)Cd) [20].

Biological context of protium


Anatomical context of protium

  • Metabolite profiling using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic changes associated with deletion of the gene for the transcriptional coactivator p300 in the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 [26].
  • Using (1)H NMR analysis, we have investigated the changes of the intracellular transverse relaxation time (T(2)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as parameters reflecting the rotational and translational motions of water in apoptotic macrophages [27].
  • Increasing attentional load on three working memory tasks was assessed with fMRI, and the concentrations of brain metabolites were measured with (1)H MRS in the frontal gray and white matter, and basal ganglia [10].
  • In this work we establish that the competitive binding of Bi(3+) to the blood serum proteins albumin and transferrin, as isolated proteins and in blood plasma, can be monitored via observation of (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of isotopically labeled [epsilon-(13)C]Met transferrin [28].
  • The present study was aimed at investigating changes in brain metabolites due to visual cortex activation in migraineurs and normal subjects by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) [29].

Associations of protium with other chemical compounds

  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) consistently detects significant differences in choline phospholipid metabolites of malignant versus benign breast lesions [30].
  • Liver extracts prepared at the end of the perfusions were analyzed by high resolution (13)C NMR (150.13 MHz) with (1)H decoupling only and with simultaneous (1)H and (2)H decoupling [31].
  • The specificity of the interaction of this particular proteoglycan with IL-3 is due to the abundance of GlcA(2S)beta 1,3GalNAc(4S)beta 1 disaccharide units as suggested by (1)H NMR [32].
  • (1)H NMR, EPR, and resonance Raman of the heme-Hmu O complex establish that a neutral imidazole of a histidine residue is the proximal ligand of the complex, similar to mammalian heme oxygenase [33].
  • Here we report the high-resolution structure of synthetic pardaxin Pa4 in sodium dodecylphosphocholine micelles, as determined by (1)H solution NMR spectroscopy [34].

Gene context of protium

  • We report here the solution structure of the human MAT1 RING finger domain (Met(1)-Asp(65)) as determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy [35].
  • Proteolytic sensitivity, tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism, and (1)H NMR measurements indicate that murine E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain is unstructured [36].
  • In (1)H (15)N HSQC ((1)H (15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence) NMR experiments, we have mapped the surface determinants of tethered and untethered ubiquitin that interact with Mms2 and Ubc13 in both their monomeric and dimeric forms [37].
  • The conformation and distances to the catalytic iron of both L-Phe and the cofactor analogue L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) simultaneously bound to recombinant human PAH have been estimated by (1)H NMR [38].
  • Thus we describe the tertiary structure of porcine PYY in water at pH 5.5, 25 degrees C, and 150 mM NaCl, as determined from 2D (1)H NMR data recorded at 500 MHz [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of protium


  1. 19F and 1H MRI detection of amyloid beta plaques in vivo. Higuchi, M., Iwata, N., Matsuba, Y., Sato, K., Sasamoto, K., Saido, T.C. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical utility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in characterizing breast lesions. Katz-Brull, R., Lavin, P.T., Lenkinski, R.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of hypothermia on brain glucose metabolism in acute liver failure: a H/C-nuclear magnetic resonance study. Chatauret, N., Zwingmann, C., Rose, C., Leibfritz, D., Butterworth, R.F. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolic profiling reveals a contribution of gut microbiota to fatty liver phenotype in insulin-resistant mice. Dumas, M.E., Barton, R.H., Toye, A., Cloarec, O., Blancher, C., Rothwell, A., Fearnside, J., Tatoud, R., Blanc, V., Lindon, J.C., Mitchell, S.C., Holmes, E., McCarthy, M.I., Scott, J., Gauguier, D., Nicholson, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Mapping extracellular pH in rat brain gliomas in vivo by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging: comparison with maps of metabolites. García-Martín, M.L., Hérigault, G., Rémy, C., Farion, R., Ballesteros, P., Coles, J.A., Cerdán, S., Ziegler, A. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. T2 hyperintensity along the cortico-spinal tract in cirrhosis relates to functional abnormalities. Córdoba, J., Raguer, N., Flavià, M., Vargas, V., Jacas, C., Alonso, J., Rovira, A. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Longitudinal quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Dixon, R.M., Bradley, K.M., Budge, M.M., Styles, P., Smith, A.D. Brain (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced levels of creatine in the right medial temporal lobe region of panic disorder patients detected with (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Massana, G., Gastó, C., Junqué, C., Mercader, J.M., Gómez, B., Massana, J., Torres, X., Salamero, M. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcohol consumption significantly influences the MR signal of frontal choline-containing compounds. Ende, G., Walter, S., Welzel, H., Demirakca, T., Wokrina, T., Ruf, M., Ulrich, M., Diehl, A., Henn, F.A., Mann, K. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased glial metabolites predict increased working memory network activation in HIV brain injury. Ernst, T., Chang, L., Arnold, S. Neuroimage (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The beta-thymosin/WH2 domain; structural basis for the switch from inhibition to promotion of actin assembly. Hertzog, M., van Heijenoort, C., Didry, D., Gaudier, M., Coutant, J., Gigant, B., Didelot, G., Préat, T., Knossow, M., Guittet, E., Carlier, M.F. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Introduction and characterization of a functionally linked metal ion binding site at the exposed heme edge of myoglobin. Hunter, C.L., Maurus, R., Mauk, M.R., Lee, H., Raven, E.L., Tong, H., Nguyen, N., Smith, M., Brayer, G.D., Mauk, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. (1)H and (13)C MAS NMR evidence for pronounced ligand-protein interactions involving the ionone ring of the retinylidene chromophore in rhodopsin. Creemers, A.F., Kiihne, S., Bovee-Geurts, P.H., DeGrip, W.J., Lugtenburg, J., de Groot, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The hsp70 chaperone DnaK is a secondary amide peptide bond cis-trans isomerase. Schiene-Fischer, C., Habazettl, J., Schmid, F.X., Fischer, G. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning of dimethylglycine dehydrogenase and a new human inborn error of metabolism, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency. Binzak, B.A., Wevers, R.A., Moolenaar, S.H., Lee, Y.M., Hwu, W.L., Poggi-Bach, J., Engelke, U.F., Hoard, H.M., Vockley, J.G., Vockley, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 is expressed in neuroblastoma, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Johnsen, J.I., Lindskog, M., Ponthan, F., Pettersen, I., Elfman, L., Orrego, A., Sveinbjörnsson, B., Kogner, P. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Base-displaced intercalated structure of the food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in the recognition sequence of the NarI restriction enzyme, a hotspot for -2 bp deletions. Wang, F., DeMuro, N.E., Elmquist, C.E., Stover, J.S., Rizzo, C.J., Stone, M.P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Active-site structure and electron-transfer reactivity of plastocyanins. Sato, K., Kohzuma, T., Dennison, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of methyl rotation axis order parameters derived from model-free analyses of (2)H and (13)C longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates measured in the same protein sample. Ishima, R., Petkova, A.P., Louis, J.M., Torchia, D.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Dynamics of mononuclear cadmium beta-lactamase revealed by the combination of NMR and PAC spectroscopy. Hemmingsen, L., Damblon, C., Antony, J., Jensen, M., Adolph, H.W., Wommer, S., Roberts, G.C., Bauer, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. A monoclonal antibody that induces neuronal apoptosis binds a metastasis marker. Zhong, L.T., Manzi, A., Skowronski, E., Notterpek, L., Fluharty, A.L., Faull, K.F., Masada, I., Rabizadeh, S., Varsanyi-Nagy, M., Ruan, Y., Oh, J.D., Butcher, L.L., Bredesen, D.E. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Assignment of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance visible polyunsaturated fatty acids in BT4C gliomas undergoing ganciclovir-thymidine kinase gene therapy-induced programmed cell death. Griffin, J.L., Lehtimäki, K.K., Valonen, P.K., Gröhn, O.H., Kettunen, M.I., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Pitkänen, A., Nicholson, J.K., Kauppinen, R.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydroxylation-induced stabilization of the collagen triple helix. Acetyl-(glycyl-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl)(10)-NH(2) forms a highly stable triple helix. Mizuno, K., Hayashi, T., Peyton, D.H., Bächinger, H.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification and molecular cloning of a novel glycoside hydrolase family of core 1 type O-glycan-specific endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Bifidobacterium longum. Fujita, K., Oura, F., Nagamine, N., Katayama, T., Hiratake, J., Sakata, K., Kumagai, H., Yamamoto, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Solution 1H NMR investigation of the active site molecular and electronic structures of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited HmuO, a bacterial heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Li, Y., Syvitski, R.T., Chu, G.C., Ikeda-Saito, M., Mar, G.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Metabolic consequences of p300 gene deletion in human colon cancer cells. Bundy, J.G., Iyer, N.G., Gentile, M.S., Hu, D.E., Kettunen, M., Maia, A.T., Thorne, N.P., Brenton, J.D., Caldas, C., Brindle, K.M. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Intracellular water motion decreases in apoptotic macrophages after caspase activation. Hortelano, S., García-Martín, M.L., Cerdán, S., Castrillo, A., Alvarez, A.M., Boscá, L. Cell Death Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Competitive binding of bismuth to transferrin and albumin in aqueous solution and in blood plasma. Sun, H., Li, H., Mason, A.B., Woodworth, R.C., Sadler, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Functional 1H-MRS findings in migraine patients with and without aura assessed interictally. Sarchielli, P., Tarducci, R., Presciutti, O., Gobbi, G., Pelliccioli, G.P., Stipa, G., Alberti, A., Capocchi, G. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular causes of the aberrant choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer. Glunde, K., Jie, C., Bhujwalla, Z.M. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Hydrogen turnover and subcellular compartmentation of hepatic [2-(13)C]glutamate and [3-(13)C]aspartate as detected by (13)C NMR. García-Martín, M.L., García-Espinosa, M.A., Ballesteros, P., Bruix, M., Cerdán, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for a lectin activity for human interleukin 3 and modeling of its carbohydrate recognition domain. Zanetta, J.P., Bindeus, R., Normand, G., Durier, V., Lagant, P., Maes, E., Vergoten, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The heme complex of Hmu O, a bacterial heme degradation enzyme from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure of the catalytic site. Chu, G.C., Tomita, T., Sönnichsen, F.D., Yoshida, T., Ikeda-Saito, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Structure and orientation of pardaxin determined by NMR experiments in model membranes. Porcelli, F., Buck, B., Lee, D.K., Hallock, K.J., Ramamoorthy, A., Veglia, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Solution structure of the N-terminal domain of the human TFIIH MAT1 subunit: new insights into the RING finger family. Gervais, V., Busso, D., Wasielewski, E., Poterszman, A., Egly, J.M., Thierry, J.C., Kieffer, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The cadherin cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in the absence of beta-catenin. A possible mechanism for regulating cadherin turnover. Huber, A.H., Stewart, D.B., Laurents, D.V., Nelson, W.J., Weis, W.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Noncovalent interaction between ubiquitin and the human DNA repair protein Mms2 is required for Ubc13-mediated polyubiquitination. McKenna, S., Spyracopoulos, L., Moraes, T., Pastushok, L., Ptak, C., Xiao, W., Ellison, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. The structural basis of the recognition of phenylalanine and pterin cofactors by phenylalanine hydroxylase: implications for the catalytic mechanism. Teigen, K., Frøystein, N.A., Martínez, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Solution structure of monomeric peptide YY supports the functional significance of the PP-fold. Keire, D.A., Kobayashi, M., Solomon, T.E., Reeve, J.R. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Observation of covalent intermediates in an enzyme mechanism at atomic resolution. Heine, A., DeSantis, G., Luz, J.G., Mitchell, M., Wong, C.H., Wilson, I.A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Structural studies on a mitochondrial glyoxalase II. Marasinghe, G.P., Sander, I.M., Bennett, B., Periyannan, G., Yang, K.W., Makaroff, C.A., Crowder, M.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  42. A novel N14Y mutation in Connexin26 in keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome: analyses of altered gap junctional communication and molecular structure of N terminus of mutated Connexin26. Arita, K., Akiyama, M., Aizawa, T., Umetsu, Y., Segawa, I., Goto, M., Sawamura, D., Demura, M., Kawano, K., Shimizu, H. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  43. A novel ganglioside isolated from renal cell carcinoma. Ito, A., Levery, S.B., Saito, S., Satoh, M., Hakomori , S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Thymidine diphosphate-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase synthesizing dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Nakano, Y., Suzuki, N., Yoshida, Y., Nezu, T., Yamashita, Y., Koga, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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