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Chemical Compound Review

Astaxanthin     (6S)-6-hydroxy-3-[18-[(4S)-4- hydroxy-2,6,6...

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Disease relevance of Astaxanthin

  • Escherichia coli strains expressing the marine bacteria (Agrobacterium aurantiacum and Alcaligenes sp. strain PC-1) astaxanthin biosynthetic genes (crtZ and W), Haematococcus pluvialis bkt, and Erwinia uredovora crtZ genes were used for in vitro characterization of the respective enzymes [1].
  • At 2 weeks postinoculation mice were treated orally once daily for 10 days (i) with different doses of algal meal rich in astaxanthin (0.4, 2, and 4 g/kg of body weight, with the astaxanthin content at 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively), (ii) with a control meal (algal meal without astaxanthin, 4 g/kg), or (iii) with vitamin C (400 mg/kg) [2].
  • The E. coli transformants produced 400 microg astaxanthin per gram of dry cell weight [3].
  • In a previous study, we isolated and characterized a marine bacterium, Paracoccus haeundaensis, which produces carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin [3].
  • We succeeded in isolating a novel cDNA involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, by an expression cloning method using an Escherichia coli transformant as a host that synthesizes beta-carotene due to the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis genes [4].

Psychiatry related information on Astaxanthin


High impact information on Astaxanthin


Chemical compound and disease context of Astaxanthin


Biological context of Astaxanthin


Anatomical context of Astaxanthin

  • Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts [17].
  • All lesions in the astaxanthin-treated rabbits were classified as early plaques according to the distribution of collagen and smooth muscle cells [12].
  • The strain E-396T, isolated from soil, was Gram-negative, aerobic, orange-pigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella and astaxanthin-producing [19].
  • Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution [20].
  • In the thoracic aorta, the atherosclerotic area was 80.7+/-5.1%, 67.1+/-6.7% (P=0.13) and 75.2+/-5.7% (P=0.49) in the control, alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin groups, respectively [21].

Associations of Astaxanthin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Astaxanthin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Astaxanthin


  1. In vitro characterization of astaxanthin biosynthetic enzymes. Fraser, P.D., Miura, Y., Misawa, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Wang, X., Willén, R., Wadström, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and characterization of the astaxanthin biosynthesis gene cluster from the marine bacterium Paracoccus haeundaensis. Lee, J.H., Kim, Y.T. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and functional identification of a novel cDNA for astaxanthin biosynthesis from Haematococcus pluvialis, and astaxanthin synthesis in Escherichia coli. Kajiwara, S., Kakizono, T., Saito, T., Kondo, K., Ohtani, T., Nishio, N., Nagai, S., Misawa, N. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Hussein, G., Nakamura, M., Zhao, Q., Iguchi, T., Goto, H., Sankawa, U., Watanabe, H. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Metabolic engineering of astaxanthin production in tobacco flowers. Mann, V., Harker, M., Pecker, I., Hirschberg, J. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Guerin, M., Huntley, M.E., Olaizola, M. Trends Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Ohgami, K., Shiratori, K., Kotake, S., Nishida, T., Mizuki, N., Yazawa, K., Ohno, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Rigid-rod beta-barrels as lipocalin models: probing confined space by carotenoid encapsulation. Baumeister, B., Matile, S. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. A carotenoid synthesis gene cluster from a non-marine Brevundimonas that synthesizes hydroxylated astaxanthin. Tao, L., Rouvière, P.E., Cheng, Q. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Disodium Disuccinate Astaxanthin (Cardax) attenuates complement activation and reduces myocardial injury following ischemia/reperfusion. Lauver, D.A., Lockwood, S.F., Lucchesi, B.R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Li, W., Hellsten, A., Jacobsson, L.S., Blomqvist, H.M., Olsson, A.G., Yuan, X.M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Paracoccus marcusii sp. nov., an orange gram-negative coccus. Harker, M., Hirschberg, J., Oren, A. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Hydrogen peroxide-induced astaxanthin biosynthesis and catalase activity in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Liu, Y.S., Wu, J.Y. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Proteomic analysis of molecular response to oxidative stress by the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Wang, S.B., Chen, F., Sommerfeld, M., Hu, Q. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Gene expression profile analysis in astaxanthin-induced Haematococcus pluvialis using a cDNA microarray. Eom, H., Lee, C.G., Jin, E. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts. Daubrawa, F., Sies, H., Stahl, W. J. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Light induction of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: regulation by photosynthetic redox control. Steinbrenner, J., Linden, H. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Paracoccus carotinifaciens sp. nov., a new aerobic gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium. Tsubokura, A., Yoneda, H., Mizuta, H. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. Osterlie, M., Bjerkeng, B., Liaaen-Jensen, S. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin on LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. Jacobsson, L.S., Yuan, X.M., Ziedén, B., Olsson, A.G. Atherosclerosis (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Suppression of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary administration of naturally occurring xanthophylls astaxanthin and canthaxanthin during the postinitiation phase. Tanaka, T., Kawamori, T., Ohnishi, M., Makita, H., Mori, H., Satoh, K., Hara, A. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Direct superoxide anion scavenging by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative: Relative efficacy of individual stereoisomers versus the statistical mixture of stereoisomers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging. Cardounel, A.J., Dumitrescu, C., Zweier, J.L., Lockwood, S.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Dietary lutein but not astaxanthin or beta-carotene increases pim-1 gene expression in murine lymphocytes. Park, J.S., Chew, B.P., Wong, T.S., Zhang, J.X., Magnuson, N.S. Nutrition and cancer. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficient one-step production of astaxanthin by the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in continuous culture. Del Río, E., Acién, F.G., García-Malea, M.C., Rivas, J., Molina-Grima, E., Guerrero, M.G. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Metabolism and CYP-inducer properties of astaxanthin in man and primary human hepatocytes. Kistler, A., Liechti, H., Pichard, L., Wolz, E., Oesterhelt, G., Hayes, A., Maurel, P. Arch. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing I(kappa)B kinase-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Lee, S.J., Bai, S.K., Lee, K.S., Namkoong, S., Na, H.J., Ha, K.S., Han, J.A., Yim, S.V., Chang, K., Kwon, Y.G., Lee, S.K., Kim, Y.M. Mol. Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of various carotenoids on cloned, effector-stage T-helper cell activity. Jyonouchi, H., Sun, S., Mizokami, M., Gross, M.D. Nutrition and cancer. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Preparative isolation and characterization of some minor impurities of astaxanthin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rao, R.N., Alvi, S.N., Rao, B.N. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of beta-crustacyanin, the dimer of apoproteins A2 and C1, each with a bound astaxanthin molecule. Chayen, N.E., Gordon, E.J., Phillips, S.E., Saridakis, E.E., Zagalsky, P.F. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Genetics and electrophoretic karyotyping of wild-type and astaxanthin mutant strains of Phaffia rhodozyma. Cifuentes, V., Hermosilla, G., Martínez, C., León, R., Pincheira, G., Jiménez, A. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1997) [Pubmed]
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