The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Cdkn2d  -  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19,...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D, INK4d, p19, p19-INK4d, p19INK4d
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cdkn2d


High impact information on Cdkn2d

  • Crystal structure of the complex of the cyclin D-dependent kinase Cdk6 bound to the cell-cycle inhibitor p19INK4d [5].
  • Our data indicate that mAsh1 negatively regulates the cell cycle (e.g., via enhanced Cdkn2d, Bub1 expression), promotes differentiation (e.g., through effects on cAMP), and enhances survival by inhibiting apoptosis [6].
  • INK4c and INK4d are expressed during mouse embryogenesis in stereotypic tissue-specific patterns and are also detected, together with INK4b, in tissues of young mice [7].
  • In both cases, the inhibitory effect was independent of AAV DNA replication but required the AAV p5 and p19 genes, which encode proteins required for AAV DNA replication and regulation of AAV gene expression [8].
  • IMCE beta-cat cells had significantly lower p19 and p53 protein levels compared to IMCE neo cells, suggesting that alterations in these two key genes may mediate the effects of beta-cat on both cellular senescence and apoptosis [9].

Biological context of Cdkn2d


Anatomical context of Cdkn2d

  • In situ hybridization of mouse embryo sections demonstrated expression of mRNAs encoding two polypeptide inhibitors (p18INK4c and p19INK4d) of cyclin D-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK6 in the central nervous system [10].
  • One hybridoma culture produced antibodies that were directed against the p19 portion of the gag precursor [13].
  • The antibodies precipitated Pr76gag and the processed virion-associated p19, as well as the 75,000-molecular-weight gag fusion protein from avian erythroblastosis virus-transformed bone marrow cells [13].
  • Viable or lysed mycobacteria, as well as purified cell wall lipoprotein p19, TLR2 agonist, induced RAW264.7 cells to extend actin-rich pseudopods, which impart radial spreading within 3 h, leading later to persistent cell polarization [14].
  • By using a system for stable, as well as tetracycline-inducible expression of interfering RNAs (RNAi), we studied the functions of PS1 during neuronal differentiation in the murine pluripotent p19 embryonic carcinoma cell line [15].

Associations of Cdkn2d with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Cdkn2d

  • The p19INK4d and p18INK4c proteins formed complexes with either CDK4 or CDK6 in a temporal pattern consistent with the results of in situ hybridization [10].
  • Therefore, p19INK4d may contribute to maintaining the quiescent state, acting as a buffer to prevent reactivation of cyclin D-dependent kinases in terminally differentiated cells [10].
  • Furthermore, CarC cells have inactivated p16INK4a and p19INK4a/ARF transcription, while CarC-R and CarC-RT clones expressed p19 mRNA and protein but not p16 [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cdkn2d

  • Using gene-targeted mice lacking only IL-12 (p35-/-) or IL-23 (p19-/-), we show that the specific absence of IL-23 is protective, whereas loss of IL-12 exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis [17].
  • Here we report the complete cDNA sequence encoding p19, its expression patterns in horse tissues and a Southern blot analysis of the gene in horse DNA [18].
  • We have identified by 2-D Western blotting 2 phosphorylated forms of p19, a highly conserved 18-19 kDa cytosolic protein that is frequently upregulated in transformed cells and undergoes phosphorylation in mammalian cells upon activation of several signal transduction pathways [19].
  • Differentiation of mouse p19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells injected into an empty zebrafish egg chorion in a microfluidic device [20].


  1. Induction of p19INK4d in response to ultraviolet light improves DNA repair and confers resistance to apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Ceruti, J.M., Scassa, M.E., Fló, J.M., Varone, C.L., Cánepa, E.T. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Lack of p19INK4d in human testicular germ-cell tumours contrasts with high expression during normal spermatogenesis. Bartkova, J., Thullberg, M., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Skakkebaek, N.E., Bartek, J. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Divergent effects of IL-12 and IL-23 on the production of IL-17 by human T cells. Hoeve, M.A., Savage, N.D., de Boer, T., Langenberg, D.M., de Waal Malefyt, R., Ottenhoff, T.H., Verreck, F.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and mapping of an immunogenic region of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae p65 surface lipoprotein expressed in Escherichia coli from a cloned genomic fragment. Kim, M.F., Heidari, M.B., Stull, S.J., McIntosh, M.A., Wise, K.S. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal structure of the complex of the cyclin D-dependent kinase Cdk6 bound to the cell-cycle inhibitor p19INK4d. Brotherton, D.H., Dhanaraj, V., Wick, S., Brizuela, L., Domaille, P.J., Volyanik, E., Xu, X., Parisini, E., Smith, B.O., Archer, S.J., Serrano, M., Brenner, S.L., Blundell, T.L., Laue, E.D. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. RNA interference of achaete-scute homolog 1 in mouse prostate neuroendocrine cells reveals its gene targets and DNA binding sites. Hu, Y., Wang, T., Stormo, G.D., Gordon, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. INK4d-deficient mice are fertile despite testicular atrophy. Zindy, F., van Deursen, J., Grosveld, G., Sherr, C.J., Roussel, M.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Adeno-associated virus gene expression inhibits cellular transformation by heterologous genes. Labow, M.A., Graf, L.H., Berns, K.I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Stabilized beta-catenin immortalizes colonic epithelial cells. Wagenaar, R.A., Crawford, H.C., Matrisian, L.M. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of INK4 inhibitors of cyclin D-dependent kinases during mouse brain development. Zindy, F., Soares, H., Herzog, K.H., Morgan, J., Sherr, C.J., Roussel, M.F. Cell Growth Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Trichostatin A activates p18INK4c gene: differential activation and cooperation with p19INK4d gene. Yokota, T., Matsuzaki, Y., Sakai, T. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. 3-Morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride induces p53-dependent apoptosis in murine primary neural cells: a critical role for p21(ras)-MAPK-p19(ARF) pathway. Kaji, T., Kaieda, I., Hisatsune, T., Kaminogawa, S. Nitric Oxide (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of monoclonal antibodies against avian oncornaviral protein p19. Greiser-Wilke, I., Owada, K.M., Moelling, K. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Mycobacteria directly induce cytoskeletal rearrangements for macrophage spreading and polarization through TLR2-dependent PI3K signaling. Lasunskaia, E.B., Campos, M.N., de Andrade, M.R., Damatta, R.A., Kipnis, T.L., Einicker-Lamas, M., Da Silva, W.D. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulatory roles of presenilin-1 and nicastrin in neuronal differentiation during in vitro neurogenesis. Sarkar, S.N., Das, H.K. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Chromosomal instability and phenotypic plasticity during the squamous-spindle carcinoma transition: association of a specific T(14;15) with malignant progression. Pons, M., Cigudosa, J.C., Rodríguez-Perales, S., Bella, J.L., González, C., Gamallo, C., Quintanilla, M. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Divergent pro- and antiinflammatory roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in joint autoimmune inflammation. Murphy, C.A., Langrish, C.L., Chen, Y., Blumenschein, W., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R.A., Sedgwick, J.D., Cua, D.J. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. A 19 kDa protein secreted by the endometrium of the mare is a novel member of the lipocalin family. Crossett, B., Allen, W.R., Stewart, F. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and hexamethylene-bis-acetamide induced dephosphorylation of p19 in murine erythroleukemia cells. Scheele, J.S. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Differentiation of mouse p19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells injected into an empty zebrafish egg chorion in a microfluidic device. Lee, J.W., Na, D.S., Kang, J.Y., Lee, S.H., Ju, B.K. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities