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Gene Review

CTD  -  Coats disease

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of CTD

  • The clonal response rates to CTD reported here are higher than any previously reported nontransplantation regimen in AL amyloidosis, and risk adaptation allows its use in poorer risk patients [1].
  • Japanese patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), patients with SS and rheumatoid arthritis (SS-RA), and patients with SS and connective tissue disease without RA (nonrheumatoid connective tissue disease [SS-CTD]) were typed for HLA antigens [2].
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) capsid proteins (CA) display similar structures formed by two independently folded N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains [3].
  • The striking similarity between the dimeric structure of CTD and the nucleocapsid-forming domain of a distantly related arterivirus indicates a conserved mechanism of nucleocapsid formation for these two viral families [4].
  • The CTD forms a tightly intertwined dimer with an intermolecular four-stranded central beta-sheet platform flanked by alpha helices, indicating that the basic building block for coronavirus nucleocapsid formation is a dimeric assembly of N protein [4].

Psychiatry related information on CTD


High impact information on CTD

  • The phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II provides key molecular contacts with these mRNA processing reactions throughout transcriptional elongation and termination [6].
  • Pin1 thus plays a significant role in regulating RNAP II CTD structure and function [7].
  • The CTD undergoes dynamic changes in phosphorylation during the transcription cycle, and this plays a significant role in coordinating its multiple activities [7].
  • Consistent with capping enzyme binding, TFIIH-phosphorylated CTD stimulated guanylylation, and this increase was not additive with hSPT5 [8].
  • Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CTD


Biological context of CTD

  • These data suggest that acetylation of Tat regulates two discrete and functionally critical steps in transcription, binding to an RNAP II CTD-kinase and release of Tat from TAR RNA [11].
  • The C-terminal domain of the UvrC protein (UvrC CTD) is essential for 5' incision in the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair process [12].
  • These data suggest that the dimerization interface of the CTD plays an important role in EC formation, and, as a consequence, in RNA-protein association and multimerization [13].
  • These elements do not constitute a high affinity binding site for TFIID, indicating that an additional mechanism exists to allow CTD-independent transcription [14].
  • Second, transfer of a combination of two elements (located at -25 and +1) from the rep-3b promoter, which does not contain a consensus TATA box but can nonetheless be transcribed by RNAP IIB, into the dhfr promoter also allowed CTD-independent transcription [14].

Anatomical context of CTD


Associations of CTD with chemical compounds

  • This implies an allosteric change in guanylyltransferase conformation that is specified by the position of phosphoserine in the CTD [20].
  • We report that the chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT functions in conjunction with the RNA polymerase II CTD kinase P-TEFb to alleviate transcription inhibition by DSIF (DRB sensitivity-inducing factor) and NELF (negative elongation factor) [21].
  • Inhibition of P-TEFb kinase activity by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB) suppressed CTD phosphorylation (especially serine 2 phosphorylation) and abolished processive elongation without disrupting the assembly of the preinitiation complex at the cyp1a1 promoter [22].
  • X-ray fluorescence spectra revealed that RPA70-CTD possesses a coordinated Zn(II) [23].
  • INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized to no treatment or gonadotropin suppression by GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) with testosterone (CT group) or with additional administration of the gestogen desogestrel (CTD group) for 4 wk before testicular biopsy [15].

Physical interactions of CTD

  • Previously, a histidine-rich stretch in CycT1 was found to bind the CTD of RNAPII and direct the transcriptional activity of this P-TEFb complex when tethered artificially to DNA [24].

Regulatory relationships of CTD

  • Although the CTD can control pre-tRNA cleavage by RNase P, a rate-limiting step in tRNASerUGA maturation, the extent to which it acts in the maturation pathway(s) of other transcripts is unknown but considered here [25].

Other interactions of CTD

  • It results that 72% of RA patients and 65% of OA patients enter classes III and IV of FHQ1, whereas 70% of CTD patients were in class I. CONCLUSIONS: An evaluation questionnaire regarding the algo-functioning of the foot could be a useful tool in routine rheumatologic clinical practice [26].
  • All of the promoter deletions of both DHFR and REP retained the characteristics of their respective full-length promoters, suggesting that the information necessary to specify the requirement for the CTD is contained within approximately 65 bp near the initiation site [27].
  • Enhanced binding of RNAP II CTD phosphatase FCP1 to RAP74 following CK2 phosphorylation [28].
  • CDK9 in association with cyclin T constitutes the P-TEFb complex that stimulates transcription elongation of RNAPII transcripts by phosphorylation of the CTD of RNAPII [29].
  • The functional properties of the enzyme against CDK2 and CTD as substrates are characterized through kinase assays [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTD

  • The location of the CTD in the structure of RNA polymerase II has been determined by electron crystallography at 16 A resolution [31].
  • For reason of prognosis and early diagnosis and to get more insight in the initial pathophysiological processes, it is important to know which patients with RP will develop or are already evolving into a CTD [32].
  • The findings of MRD after the topical administration of contrast medium and MRD after cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus were comparable with irrigation or CTD data for all patients except one [33].
  • The specificity and nature of the interaction between the CTD of RNAP II and the C-domain of IBP39 was validated by three independent biochemical methods: co-immunoprecipitation with epitope-tagged proteins, affinity chromatography and enzyme linked ligand sorbent (ELLSA) assays [34].
  • We have subcloned the cDNA encoding the polycystin-1 C-terminal domain (PKD1-CTD) into a prokaryotic expression vector, and site-directed mutagenesis was performed to target the four tyrosine residues and four serine residues in two putative phosphorylation sites [35].


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  2. Association between HLA and Sjögren's syndrome in Japanese patients. Moriuchi, J., Ichikawa, Y., Takaya, M., Shimizu, H., Uchiyama, M., Sato, K., Tsuji, K., Arimori, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  4. X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains of a coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for nucleocapsid formation. Jayaram, H., Fan, H., Bowman, B.R., Ooi, A., Jayaram, J., Collisson, E.W., Lescar, J., Prasad, B.V. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Preliminary findings of antistreptococcal antibody titers and basal ganglia volumes in tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Peterson, B.S., Leckman, J.F., Tucker, D., Scahill, L., Staib, L., Zhang, H., King, R., Cohen, D.J., Gore, J.C., Lombroso, P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
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  7. Pin1 modulates the structure and function of human RNA polymerase II. Xu, Y.X., Hirose, Y., Zhou, X.Z., Lu, K.P., Manley, J.L. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcription elongation factor hSPT5 stimulates mRNA capping. Wen, Y., Shatkin, A.J. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Zhang, Z., Gilmour, D.S. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Serous macular detachment secondary to distant retinal vascular disorders. Otani, T., Yamaguchi, Y., Kishi, S. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. HIV-1 tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylation. Kiernan, R.E., Vanhulle, C., Schiltz, L., Adam, E., Xiao, H., Maudoux, F., Calomme, C., Burny, A., Nakatani, Y., Jeang, K.T., Benkirane, M., Van Lint, C. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the C-terminal domain of UvrC from E.coli. Singh, S., Folkers, G.E., Bonvin, A.M., Boelens, R., Wechselberger, R., Niztayev, A., Kaptein, R. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro identification and characterization of an early complex linking HIV-1 genomic RNA recognition and Pr55Gag multimerization. Roldan, A., Russell, R.S., Marchand, B., Götte, M., Liang, C., Wainberg, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of cis-acting elements that can obviate a requirement for the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Buermeyer, A.B., Strasheim, L.A., McMahon, S.L., Farnham, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Direct effect of progestogen on gene expression in the testis during gonadotropin withdrawal and early suppression of spermatogenesis. Walton, M.J., Bayne, R.A., Wallace, I., Baird, D.T., Anderson, R.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Nailfold capillary microscopy in healthy children and in childhood rheumatic diseases: a prospective single blind observational study. Dolezalova, P., Young, S.P., Bacon, P.A., Southwood, T.R. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Biometry of face and brain in fetuses with trisomy 21. Guihard-Costa, A.M., Khung, S., Delbecque, K., Ménez, F., Delezoide, A.L. Pediatr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Anti-thyroid autoantibody-associated interface dermatitis in individuals with undifferentiated connective tissue disease -an unrecognized subset of autoimmune disease? Cheng, W., Gilliam, A.C., Castrovinci, A., Pazirandeh, M. J. Rheumatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Cardiac output measurement in critically ill patients: comparison of continuous and conventional thermodilution techniques. Lefrant, J.Y., Bruelle, P., Ripart, J., Ibanez, F., Aya, G., Peray, P., Saïssi, G., de La Coussaye, J.E., Eledjam, J.J. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Distinct roles for CTD Ser-2 and Ser-5 phosphorylation in the recruitment and allosteric activation of mammalian mRNA capping enzyme. Ho, C.K., Shuman, S. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. FACT relieves DSIF/NELF-mediated inhibition of transcriptional elongation and reveals functional differences between P-TEFb and TFIIH. Wada, T., Orphanides, G., Hasegawa, J., Kim, D.K., Shima, D., Yamaguchi, Y., Fukuda, A., Hisatake, K., Oh, S., Reinberg, D., Handa, H. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Interactions between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and P-TEFb. Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at cyp1a1 promoter. Tian, Y., Ke, S., Chen, M., Sheng, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. The role for zinc in replication protein A. Bochkareva, E., Korolev, S., Bochkarev, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  25. La protein and its associated small nuclear and nucleolar precursor RNAs. Maraia, R.J., Intine, R.V. Gene Expr. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  27. The HIP1 initiator element plays a role in determining the in vitro requirement of the dihydrofolate reductase gene promoter for the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Buermeyer, A.B., Thompson, N.E., Strasheim, L.A., Burgess, R.R., Farnham, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Enhanced binding of RNAP II CTD phosphatase FCP1 to RAP74 following CK2 phosphorylation. Abbott, K.L., Renfrow, M.B., Chalmers, M.J., Nguyen, B.D., Marshall, A.G., Legault, P., Omichinski, J.G. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. CDK9 has the intrinsic property to shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, and enhanced expression of cyclin T1 promotes its nuclear localization. Napolitano, G., Licciardo, P., Carbone, R., Majello, B., Lania, L. J. Cell. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. The crystal structure of human CDK7 and its protein recognition properties. Lolli, G., Lowe, E.D., Brown, N.R., Johnson, L.N. Structure (Camb.) (2004) [Pubmed]
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  34. Trichomonas vaginalis initiator binding protein (IBP39) and RNA polymerase II large subunit carboxy terminal domain interaction. Lau, A.O., Smith, A.J., Brown, M.T., Johnson, P.J. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the PKD1-encoded protein C-terminal domain. Li, H.P., Geng, L., Burrow, C.R., Wilson, P.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
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