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Chemical Compound Review

Thenardite     disodium sulfate

Synonyms: Trona, Natriumsufat, Natriumsulfat, Na sulphate, AC1LANKY, ...
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Disease relevance of disodium sulfate

  • In the remaining eight patients, the urinary pH did not fall below 5.5 (6.4 +/- 0.2) with acidosis, and we failed to lower the urinary pH and increase fractional potassium excretion to normal by administering a mineralocorticoid and sodium sulfate [1].
  • Mice lacking ITF had impaired mucosal healing and died from extensive colitis after oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium, an agent that causes mild epithelial injury in wild-type mice [2].
  • Intragastric administration of IL-10-secreting Lactococcus lactis caused a 50% reduction in colitis in mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium and prevented the onset of colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice [3].
  • Effects of sodium sulfate on fecal pH and proliferation of colonic mucosa in patients at high risk for colon cancer [4].
  • Fifty-seven patients who had had colonic polyps removed were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either sodium sulfate (27 patients) or a placebo (25 patients) at a mean dose of 4 g/day for 14 days [4].

High impact information on disodium sulfate

  • Epimorphin(-/-) mice have increased intestinal growth, decreased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate colitis, and impaired spermatogenesis [5].
  • Both intrarectal infusion of 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and oral administration of dextrane sulfate sodium induced stronger inflammation in CB1-deficient mice (CB1(-/-)) than in wild-type littermates (CB1(+/+)) [6].
  • Moreover, PAR1 activation exacerbated and prolonged inflammation in a mouse model of IBD induced by the intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), while PAR1 antagonism significantly decreased the mortality and severity of colonic inflammation induced by TNBS and dextran sodium sulfate [7].
  • Increased sensitivity to dextran sodium sulfate colitis in IRE1beta-deficient mice [8].
  • The defect induced by lithium administration responded to Na2SO4 (urine pH = 5.21 +/- 0.06) but was similar to amiloride with respect to the observed reduction in disequilibrium pH (-0.04 +/- 0.02) and pCO2 (90.3 +/- 3.0 mmHg) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of disodium sulfate


Biological context of disodium sulfate


Anatomical context of disodium sulfate


Associations of disodium sulfate with other chemical compounds

  • Lowering the pH to 5.7 in 1 M Na2SO4 without dihaloalkanes induces a cooperative structural transition in which the dyad cavities between B13 glutamate pairs are constricted, and SO4(2-) ions are bound by rearranged triads of B1 NH+3 groups [25].
  • The phosphorylation decreased the per cent of glycogen synthase I from 0.95 to 0.50 when activity was determined by assays with Na2SO4 and glucose 6-phosphate [26].
  • Glucose-6-P and Na2SO4 were without effect on this phosphorylation reaction [26].
  • At salt concentrations of 0-500 mN and pH 7.0, as much as 70% of the chromatin could be induced to aggregate by monosodium glutamate and sodium acetate, whereas only 10% or less was precipitated by NaSCN, Na2SO4, and Na3citrate [27].
  • Using the fluorescent probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate, the protease was shown to bind the dye in the presence of 1.25 M Na2SO4 or KPO4, but not at low ionic strength or in the presence of 1.25 or 2.2 M NaCl [28].

Gene context of disodium sulfate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of disodium sulfate


  1. Hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis associated with obstructive uropathy. Batlle, D.C., Arruda, J.A., Kurtzman, N.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Impaired defense of intestinal mucosa in mice lacking intestinal trefoil factor. Mashimo, H., Wu, D.C., Podolsky, D.K., Fishman, M.C. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of murine colitis by Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin-10. Steidler, L., Hans, W., Schotte, L., Neirynck, S., Obermeier, F., Falk, W., Fiers, W., Remaut, E. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of sodium sulfate on fecal pH and proliferation of colonic mucosa in patients at high risk for colon cancer. Kashtan, H., Gregoire, R.C., Bruce, W.R., Hay, K., Stern, H.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Epimorphin(-/-) mice have increased intestinal growth, decreased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate colitis, and impaired spermatogenesis. Wang, Y., Wang, L., Iordanov, H., Swietlicki, E.A., Zheng, Q., Jiang, S., Tang, Y., Levin, M.S., Rubin, D.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation. Massa, F., Marsicano, G., Hermann, H., Cannich, A., Monory, K., Cravatt, B.F., Ferri, G.L., Sibaev, A., Storr, M., Lutz, B. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A role for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in inflammatory bowel diseases. Vergnolle, N., Cellars, L., Mencarelli, A., Rizzo, G., Swaminathan, S., Beck, P., Steinhoff, M., Andrade-Gordon, P., Bunnett, N.W., Hollenberg, M.D., Wallace, J.L., Cirino, G., Fiorucci, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased sensitivity to dextran sodium sulfate colitis in IRE1beta-deficient mice. Bertolotti, A., Wang, X., Novoa, I., Jungreis, R., Schlessinger, K., Cho, J.H., West, A.B., Ron, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Validation of the difference in urine and blood carbon dioxide tension during bicarbonate loading as an index of distal nephron acidification in experimental models of distal renal tubular acidosis. DuBose, T.D., Caflisch, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Cysteine-rich domains of muc3 intestinal mucin promote cell migration, inhibit apoptosis, and accelerate wound healing. Ho, S.B., Dvorak, L.A., Moor, R.E., Jacobson, A.C., Frey, M.R., Corredor, J., Polk, D.B., Shekels, L.L. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Cross-organ sensitization of lumbosacral spinal neurons receiving urinary bladder input in rats with inflamed colon. Qin, C., Malykhina, A.P., Akbarali, H.I., Foreman, R.D. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Sex steroid regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in normal and inflamed colon in the female rat. Houdeau, E., Moriez, R., Leveque, M., Salvador-Cartier, C., Waget, A., Leng, L., Bueno, L., Bucala, R., Fioramonti, J. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppressive role of indole on 2-acetylaminofluorene hepatotoxicity. Hopp, M.L., Matsumoto, M., Wendell, B., Lee, C., Oyasu, R. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Lipoxin a4 analogs attenuate induction of intestinal epithelial proinflammatory gene expression and reduce the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Gewirtz, A.T., Collier-Hyams, L.S., Young, A.N., Kucharzik, T., Guilford, W.J., Parkinson, J.F., Williams, I.R., Neish, A.S., Madara, J.L. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Recruitment of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated to the p21(waf1) Promoter by ZBP-89 Plays a Role in Mucosal Protection. Bai, L., Kao, J.Y., Law, D.J., Merchant, J.L. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein. Borges, H.L., Bird, J., Wasson, K., Cardiff, R.D., Varki, N., Eckmann, L., Wang, J.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Radioimmunochemical measurement of the transferrin receptor in human trophoblast and reticulocyte membranes with a specific anti-receptor antibody. Enns, C.A., Shindelman, J.E., Tonik, S.E., Sussman, H.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic histopathology, but not altered epithelial ion transport, is reduced by inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. Diaz-Granados, N., Howe, K., Lu, J., McKay, D.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Futile cycling of a sulfate conjugate by isolated hepatocytes. Kauffman, F.C., Whittaker, M., Anundi, I., Thurman, R.G. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Diamine oxidase (histaminase). A circulating marker for rat intestinal mucosal maturation and integrity. Luk, G.D., Bayless, T.M., Baylin, S.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Plasma postheparin diamine oxidase. Sensitive provocative test for quantitating length of acute intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Luk, G.D., Bayless, T.M., Baylin, S.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Prostaglandins prevent decreased epithelial cell proliferation associated with dextran sodium sulfate injury in mice. Tessner, T.G., Cohn, S.M., Schloemann, S., Stenson, W.F. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Sulfate-sodium cotransport by brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat ileum. Lücke, H., Stange, G., Murer, H. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. A low-sodium solution for gastrointestinal lavage. Fordtran, J.S., Santa Ana, C.A., Cleveland MvB, n.u.l.l. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Stereospecific dihaloalkane binding in a pH-sensitive cavity in cubic insulin crystals. Gursky, O., Fontano, E., Bhyravbhatla, B., Caspar, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Phosphorylation of heart glycogen synthase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Regulatory effects of ATP. Mitchell, J.W., Mellgren, R.L., Thomas, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Chromatin aggregation depends on the anion species of the salts. Guo, X.W., Cole, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Stimulation of the herpes simplex virus type I protease by antichaeotrophic salts. Yamanaka, G., DiIanni, C.L., O'Boyle, D.R., Stevens, J., Weinheimer, S.P., Deckman, I.C., Matusick-Kumar, L., Colonno, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Epiregulin is not essential for development of intestinal tumors but is required for protection from intestinal damage. Lee, D., Pearsall, R.S., Das, S., Dey, S.K., Godfrey, V.L., Threadgill, D.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. A mutant form of JAB/SOCS1 augments the cytokine-induced JAK/STAT pathway by accelerating degradation of wild-type JAB/CIS family proteins through the SOCS-box. Hanada, T., Yoshida, T., Kinjyo, I., Minoguchi, S., Yasukawa, H., Kato, S., Mimata, H., Nomura, Y., Seki, Y., Kubo, M., Yoshimura, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Sulfate and methyldopa metabolism: metabolite patterns and platelet phenol sulfotransferase activity. Campbell, N.R., Sundaram, R.S., Werness, P.G., Van Loon, J., Weinshilboum, R.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Fasting prevents experimental murine colitis produced by dextran sulfate sodium and decreases interleukin-1 beta and insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid. Sävendahl, L., Underwood, L.E., Haldeman, K.M., Ulshen, M.H., Lund, P.K. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Dextran sodium sulfate strongly promotes colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice: inflammatory stimuli by dextran sodium sulfate results in development of multiple colonic neoplasms. Tanaka, T., Kohno, H., Suzuki, R., Hata, K., Sugie, S., Niho, N., Sakano, K., Takahashi, M., Wakabayashi, K. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Induction of intestinal tumors in rats by dextran sulfate sodium. Hirono, I., Kuhara, K., Hosaka, S., Tomizawa, S., Golberg, L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Development of a lavage solution associated with minimal water and electrolyte absorption or secretion. Davis, G.R., Santa Ana, C.A., Morawski, S.G., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Chitinase 3-like-1 exacerbates intestinal inflammation by enhancing bacterial adhesion and invasion in colonic epithelial cells. Mizoguchi, E. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Targeted deletion of metalloproteinase 9 attenuates experimental colitis in mice: central role of epithelial-derived MMP. Castaneda, F.E., Walia, B., Vijay-Kumar, M., Patel, N.R., Roser, S., Kolachala, V.L., Rojas, M., Wang, L., Oprea, G., Garg, P., Gewirtz, A.T., Roman, J., Merlin, D., Sitaraman, S.V. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
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