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Gene Review

Ldhc  -  lactate dehydrogenase C

Mus musculus

Synonyms: L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain, LDH testis subunit, LDH-C, LDH-C4, LDH-X, ...
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Disease relevance of Ldhc

  • Several cDNA clones for the mouse lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X), a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme, were isolated from mouse testicular cDNA libraries constructed in the bacteriophage vectors, lambda gt11 and gt10 [1].
  • Its ultrastructural characteristics and the expression of genes that are transcribed in vivo in male germ cells (c-kit, LDH-X, and Hox a-4) suggest the progression of an initial, apparently pure Sertoli cell tumor into a mixed proliferation [2].
  • Testicular lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme activity (LDH-X), a pachytene spermatocyte marker of testicular toxicity, was significantly decreased to 71.8% and 68.6% of the control value after daily p.o. administration of ER (21 days) in doses of 68 and 136 mg kg-1 respectively [3].

High impact information on Ldhc

  • A rabbit antiserum specific for LDH-X, the spermatozoal form of mouse lactate dehydrogenase, was prepared [4].
  • A combination of sucrose gradient centrifugation and oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography resulted in a 23-fold purification of LDH-X mRNA over total cytoplasmic testis RNA [5].
  • Measurement of LDH-X mRNA levels in separated testis cell populations prepared by centrifugal elutriation demonstrated that LDH-X mRNA represents 0.17-0.18% of the total functional mRNA activity in fractions enriched in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but only 0.09-0.10% of the translation products of elongated spermatids [5].
  • Total mouse testis RNA directs the synthesis of the sperm-specific C subunit of lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) when translated in a cell-free system derived from rabbit reticulocytes [5].
  • ldhc expression in non-germ cell nuclei is repressed by NF-I binding [6].

Biological context of Ldhc


Anatomical context of Ldhc

  • The Northern blot analysis of poly(A)-containing RNAs from mouse testes and liver indicates that the LDH-C gene is expressed in testes but not in liver, and that its mRNA is approx. 1400 nucleotides in length [9].
  • To determine whether the primate Ldhc mRNA is posttranscriptionally regulated, comparison of baboon and mouse Ldhc mRNA stability was made in a cell-free system [10].
  • The binding of antibodies against LDH-X by preimplantation mouse embryos was studied to detect LDH-X from spermatozoa in embryos after fertilization [11].
  • When the distribution of the LDH-X mRNA was examined across polysome gradients, both mRNAs were partially associated with polysomes [12].
  • Silver grains accumulated in cells inside the second layer from the periphery of the seminiferous tubule, confirming previous findings that LDH-X mRNA first appears in the spermatocyte and continues to accumulate until the late spermatid stage [12].

Associations of Ldhc with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Ldhc

  • The 2 genes were found to be oriented in head-to-tail fashion with about a 6-kilobase (kb) distance between the 3' end of ldha and the 5' end of ldhc [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ldhc


  1. Molecular isolation and sequence determination of the cDNA for the mouse sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase-X gene. Wu, K.C., Chan, K., Lee, C.Y., Lau, Y.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimental Sertoli cell tumors in the mouse and their progression into a mixed germ cell-sex cord proliferation. Paquis-Flucklinger, V., Rassoulzadegan, M., Michiels, J.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. A study on the reproductive toxicity of erythrosine in male mice. Abdel Aziz, A.H., Shouman, S.A., Attia, A.S., Saad, S.F. Pharmacol. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Lactate dehydrogenase X: effects of antibody on mouse gametes but not on early development. Erickson, R.P., Hoppe, P.C., Tennenbaum, D., Spielmann, H., Epstein, C.J. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of the synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase-X during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Wieben, E.D. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. ldhc expression in non-germ cell nuclei is repressed by NF-I binding. Jethanandani, P., Goldberg, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A 60-bp core promoter sequence of murine lactate dehydrogenase C is sufficient to direct testis-specific transcription in vitro. Zhou, W., Xu, J., Goldberg, E. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Transgenic mice demonstrate a testis-specific promoter for lactate dehydrogenase, LDHC. Li, S., Zhou, W., Doglio, L., Goldberg, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the cDNA for sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase-C from mouse. Sakai, I., Sharief, F.S., Li, S.S. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Posttranscriptional regulation of primate Ldhc mRNA by its AUUUA-like elements. Salehi-Ashtiani, K., Goldberg, E. Mol. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Studies on the binding of antibody against mouse lactate dehydrogenase (isoenzyme X) by preimplantation mouse embryos. Spielmann, H., Eibs, H.G., Mentzel, C., Nagel, D. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in polyadenylation of lactate dehydrogenase-X mRNA during spermatogenesis in mice. Fujimoto, H., Erickson, R.P., Toné, S. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides alters binding and silences testis-specific transcription directed by the mouse lactate dehydrogenase C promoter. Kroft, T.L., Jethanandani, P., McLean, D.J., Goldberg, E. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. An evaluation of heterologous antibodies to lactate dehydrogenase-C in the detection of mutations. Burkhart, J.G., Benziger, J., Svensson, K., Malling, H.V. Mutat. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in serum lactate dehydrogenase isozyme-X activity observed after cadmium administration. Itoh, R., Ozasa, H. Toxicol. Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Abundance of repetitive sequence elements in the mouse testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase-C gene. Olsson, P.G., Tsujioka, H., Narisawa, S., Goldberg, E., Millán, J.L. J. Androl. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. cDNA copies of the testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C) mRNA are present in spermatogenic cells in mice, but processed pseudogenes are not derived from mRNAs that are expressed in haploid and late meiotic spermatogenic cells. Zhong, X., Kleene, K.C. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Influence of selenium induced oxidative stress on spermatogenesis and lactate dehydrogenase-X in mice testis. Kaur, P., Bansal, M.P. Asian J. Androl. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo germinal mutation detection with "monospecific" antibody against lactate dehydrogenase-X. Ansari, A.A., Baig, M.A., Malling, H.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
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