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Gene Review

Tyro3  -  TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI323366, Brt, Dtk, Etk-2, Etk2/tyro3, ...
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Disease relevance of Tyro3


High impact information on Tyro3


Biological context of Tyro3


Anatomical context of Tyro3

  • Conversely, two other family members, Tyro3 and Mer, were not detected in mouse sera and conditioned medium. sAxl is constitutively released by murine primary cells such as dendritic and transformed cell lines [14].
  • Together with Axl and Rse, the three RTKs are believed to play important functional roles in the male gonads because gene knockout male mice lacking all of these receptors are infertile [15].
  • Gas6 mRNA is present in both spinal motor neurons and large neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, and neural injury has been reported to upregulate Rse/Axl in the schwann cell [16].
  • The expression of its receptor, Tyro 3, was seen only in mature osteoclasts among bone cells [1].
  • Introduction of murine Sky into RatB1a fibroblasts by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer results in morphological transformation, growth in soft agar, and the formation of tumors in nude mice [17].

Associations of Tyro3 with chemical compounds

  • To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag [18].
  • The frequencies of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-and lipoprotein-reactive precursors for IgG-secreting cells in the spleen of 6--8 wk old C3H/Tif and of C57BL/67 mice were found to be between 1 in 30 and 1 in 40 B cells and, therefore, only one tenth of the frequencies of mitogen-reactive precursors of clones secreting IgM [19].
  • Compared with the F1 hybrid strain the parental inbred strains DBA 2 J and C3H/Tif demonstrated a certain resistance to streptozotocin [20].
  • The relationship between hydralazine-induced changes in blood pressure and tumor blood flow was investigated in restrained but non-anesthetized CDF1 mice bearing C3H/Tif foot tumors [21].
  • The effect of systemic treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin on sun-induced skin carcinogenesis was examined in lightly pigmented hairless hr/hr C3H/Tif mice [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tyro3


  1. Mechanism of stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption through Gas6/Tyro 3, a receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, in mouse osteoclasts. Katagiri, M., Hakeda, Y., Chikazu, D., Ogasawara, T., Takato, T., Kumegawa, M., Nakamura, K., Kawaguchi, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The relationship between carbon monoxide breathing, tumour oxygenation and local tumour control in the C3H mammary carcinoma in vivo. Grau, C., Khalil, A.A., Nordsmark, M., Horsman, M.R., Overgaard, J. Br. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Photodynamic and photohyperthermic response of malignant tumors. Svaasand, L.O. Medical physics. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Subcutaneous implanted chambers in different mouse strains as an animal model to study genetic stability during infection with Lyme disease Borrelia. Jonsson, M., Elmros, T., Bergström, S. Microb. Pathog. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic carbohydrate-labelling of glycolipids from mouse splenocytes. Mitogen-stimulated B and T cells show different labelling patterns. Rosenfelder, G., van Eijk, R.V., Mühlradt, P.F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Tyro-3 family receptors are essential regulators of mammalian spermatogenesis. Lu, Q., Gore, M., Zhang, Q., Camenisch, T., Boast, S., Casagranda, F., Lai, C., Skinner, M.K., Klein, R., Matsushima, G.K., Earp, H.S., Goff, S.P., Lemke, G. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Homeostatic regulation of the immune system by receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro 3 family. Lu, Q., Lemke, G. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Natural killer cell differentiation driven by Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinases. Caraux, A., Lu, Q., Fernandez, N., Riou, S., Di Santo, J.P., Raulet, D.H., Lemke, G., Roth, C. Nat. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Receptor tyrosine kinase gene Tyro3 maps to mouse chromosome 2, closely linked to Ltk. Liao, X., Zhou, R., Gilbert, D.J., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. Lewis, P.M., Crosier, K.E., Wood, C.R., Crosier, P.S. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Gas6/Axl signaling activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 survival pathway to protect oligodendrocytes from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. Shankar, S.L., O'Guin, K., Kim, M., Varnum, B., Lemke, G., Brosnan, C.F., Shafit-Zagardo, B. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A receptor tyrosine kinase, Sky, and its ligand Gas 6 are expressed in gonads and support primordial germ cell growth or survival in culture. Matsubara, N., Takahashi, Y., Nishina, Y., Mukouyama, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Watanabe, T., Nakano, T., Nomura, K., Arita, H., Nishimune, Y., Obinata, M., Matsui, Y. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. TAM receptor function in the retinal pigment epithelium. Prasad, D., Rothlin, C.V., Burrola, P., Burstyn-Cohen, T., Lu, Q., Garcia de Frutos, P., Lemke, G. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Soluble Axl is generated by ADAM10-dependent cleavage and associates with Gas6 in mouse serum. Budagian, V., Bulanova, E., Orinska, Z., Duitman, E., Brandt, K., Ludwig, A., Hartmann, D., Lemke, G., Saftig, P., Bulfone-Paus, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The proximal cis-acting elements Sp1, Sp3 and E2F regulate mouse mer gene transcription in Sertoli cells. Wong, C.C., Lee, W.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of Gas6 as a growth factor for human Schwann cells. Li, R., Chen, J., Hammonds, G., Phillips, H., Armanini, M., Wood, P., Bunge, R., Godowski, P.J., Sliwkowski, M.X., Mather, J.P. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Mouse mammary tumors express elevated levels of RNA encoding the murine homology of SKY, a putative receptor tyrosine kinase. Taylor, I.C., Roy, S., Yaswen, P., Stampfer, M.R., Varmus, H.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain. Mark, M.R., Scadden, D.T., Wang, Z., Gu, Q., Goddard, A., Godowski, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. The switch from IgM to IgG secretion in single mitogen-stimulated B-cell clones. Andersson, J., Coutinho, A., Melchers, F. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Absence of H-2 genetic influence on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Kromann, H., Christy, M., Egeberg, J., Lernmark, A., Nerup, J. Diabetologia (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Relationship between the hydralazine-induced changes in murine tumor blood supply and mouse blood pressure. Horsman, M.R., Christensen, K.L., Overgaard, J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of systemic indomethacin on photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice. Haedersdal, M., Poulsen, T., Wulf, H.C. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Structure, expression, and activity of Tyro 3, a neural adhesion-related receptor tyrosine kinase. Lai, C., Gore, M., Lemke, G. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Tyro 3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, Gas6, stimulate the function of osteoclasts. Nakamura, Y.S., Hakeda, Y., Takakura, N., Kameda, T., Hamaguchi, I., Miyamoto, T., Kakudo, S., Nakano, T., Kumegawa, M., Suda, T. Stem Cells (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Human lactoferrin and peptides derived from a surface-exposed helical region reduce experimental Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in mice. Håversen, L.A., Engberg, I., Baltzer, L., Dolphin, G., Hanson, L.A., Mattsby-Baltzer, I. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
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