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Gene Review

Cyp19a1  -  cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily a,...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Arom, Aromatase, CYPXIX, Cyp19, Cyp19a, ...
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Disease relevance of Cyp19a1


Psychiatry related information on Cyp19a1

  • In summary, our results suggest that differential regulation of aromatase mRNA expression during the critical period of sexual differentiation might, in part, account for the establishment of some of the many sexually dimorphic parameters of the rat brain [4].
  • Brain androgen-inducible aromatase is critical for adolescent organization of environment-specific social interaction in male rats [5].
  • These results suggest that testosterone induction of aromatase is critical for the organization of mature SI behavior in male rats over adolescent development [5].

High impact information on Cyp19a1


Chemical compound and disease context of Cyp19a1


Biological context of Cyp19a1

  • The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), is expressed in granulosa cells and has been shown to synergize with the cAMP signaling system to regulate the gonadal type II aromatase promoter in transient transfection assays [12].
  • Real-time PCR quantification revealed that aromatase mRNA levels varied during the estrous cycle and were significantly increased after ovariectomy [13].
  • Conversely, transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 inhibited Cyp19 gene expression in a dose- and a time-dependent manner in both PS and RS [14].
  • The results demonstrate that exposure to either of these estrogens for 12 h allowed the subsequent FSH stimulation to produce high cellular proliferation, high aromatase enzyme activity, and large amounts of FSH receptor and aromatase mRNA [15].
  • We also report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the rat aromatase P-450arom from a cDNA library prepared from this cell line [1].

Anatomical context of Cyp19a1

  • We conclude that the differential effects of FSH and LH on aromatase in immature granulosa cells are highly dependent on gonadotropin receptor density and on the signaling pathways activated [16].
  • Furthermore, in either TGFbeta1- or TNFalpha-treated germ cells, the addition of Dex stimulated the aromatase gene transcription [14].
  • Discrete aromatase immunoreactive cells were localized in primordial corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosus and os penis, blood vessels and sensory corpuscle of glans penis [17].
  • The present study investigates the topography and time course of brain aromatase expression after experimental stroke (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)) [18].
  • Further, the peptide was, like FSH, also shown to stimulate aromatase activity in intact Sertoli cells from immature male rats in vitro [19].

Associations of Cyp19a1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Cyp19a1


Regulatory relationships of Cyp19a1


Other interactions of Cyp19a1

  • Recent studies have shown that LRH-1 is even more highly expressed in the ovary, and LRH-1 has been implicated as a key transcriptional regulator of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) in vitro [27].
  • These results suggested that androgens regulate granulosa cell aromatase activity not only as substrates, but also by acting at a site before cAMP production (possibly at the level of the FSH receptor) in the control of FSH-induced enzyme activity [28].
  • Although aromatization of testicular androgens has been suggested to mediate the blockade of the 17-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase step in adult testes, altered steady state levels of aromatase mRNA are not involved in this response [29].
  • Direct inhibitory effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone upon follicle-stimulating hormone induction of luteinizing hormone receptor and aromatase activity in rat granulosa cells [30].
  • ACTH- and LH-positive adenomas were considered as controls; only multi-hormonal ACTH and LH tumors display aromatase-positive cells and all of these also contained prolactin-positive cells [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cyp19a1


  1. The structure of cDNA clones encoding the aromatase P-450 isolated from a rat Leydig cell tumor line demonstrates differential processing of aromatase mRNA in rat ovary and a neoplastic cell line. Lephart, E.D., Peterson, K.G., Noble, J.F., George, F.W., McPhaul, M.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of aromatase P450 is increased in spontaneous prolactinomas of aged rats. Carretero, J., Burks, D.J., Vázquez, G., Rubio, M., Hernández, E., Bodego, P., Vázquez, R. Pituitary (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Heat stress diminishes gonadotropin receptor expression and enhances susceptibility to apoptosis of rat granulosa cells. Shimizu, T., Ohshima, I., Ozawa, M., Takahashi, S., Tajima, A., Shiota, M., Miyazaki, H., Kanai, Y. Reproduction (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Sex differences and androgen-dependent regulation of aromatase (CYP19) mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain. Lauber, M.E., Sarasin, A., Lichtensteiger, W. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Brain androgen-inducible aromatase is critical for adolescent organization of environment-specific social interaction in male rats. Kellogg, C.K., Lundin, A. Hormones and behavior. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of liver regeneration on hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes and serum sex steroids in the male rat. Liddle, C., Murray, M., Farrell, G.C. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Adult male rat hippocampus synthesizes estradiol from pregnenolone by cytochromes P45017alpha and P450 aromatase localized in neurons. Hojo, Y., Hattori, T.A., Enami, T., Furukawa, A., Suzuki, K., Ishii, H.T., Mukai, H., Morrison, J.H., Janssen, W.G., Kominami, S., Harada, N., Kimoto, T., Kawato, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is expressed by human and rat glioblastomas. Yague, J.G., Lavaque, E., Carretero, J., Azcoitia, I., Garcia-Segura, L.M. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of the aromatase inhibitor delta 1-testolactone on gonadotropin release and steroid metabolism in polycystic ovarian disease. Dunaif, A., Longcope, C., Canick, J., Badger, T., Crowley, W.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of the steroidal aromatase inhibitor exemestane and the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole on bone and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Goss, P.E., Qi, S., Cheung, A.M., Hu, H., Mendes, M., Pritzker, K.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxytocin mediates the estrogen-dependent contractile activity of endothelin-1 in human and rabbit epididymis. Filippi, S., Morelli, A., Vignozzi, L., Vannelli, G.B., Marini, M., Ferruzzi, P., Mancina, R., Crescioli, C., Mondaini, N., Forti, G., Ledda, F., Maggi, M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Liver receptor homolog-1 stimulates the progesterone biosynthetic pathway during follicle-stimulating hormone-induced granulosa cell differentiation. Saxena, D., Safi, R., Little-Ihrig, L., Zeleznik, A.J. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. The expression of aromatase in gonadotropes is regulated by estradiol and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in a manner that differs from the regulation of luteinizing hormone. Galmiche, G., Richard, N., Corvaisier, S., Kottler, M.L. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of aromatase gene expression in purified germ cells of adult male rats: effects of transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monosphosphate. Bourguiba, S., Chater, S., Delalande, C., Benahmed, M., Carreau, S. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Duration of estrogen exposure prior to follicle-stimulating hormone stimulation is critical to granulosa cell growth and differentiation in rats. Reilly, C.M., Cannady, W.E., Mahesh, V.B., Stopper, V.S., De Sevilla, L.M., Mills, T.M. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The differential effects of the gonadotropin receptors on aromatase expression in primary cultures of immature rat granulosa cells are highly dependent on the density of receptors expressed and the activation of the inositol phosphate cascade. Donadeu, F.X., Ascoli, M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Aromatase is abundantly expressed by neonatal rat penis but downregulated in adulthood. Jesmin, S., Mowa, C.N., Sakuma, I., Matsuda, N., Togashi, H., Yoshioka, M., Hattori, Y., Kitabatake, A. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Brain aromatase expression after experimental stroke: topography and time course. Carswell, H.V., Dominiczak, A.F., Garcia-Segura, L.M., Harada, N., Hutchison, J.B., Macrae, I.M. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A gonadotropin-like thermostable peptide, prepared from bovine anterior pituitary, inducing spermiation in the frog Rana esculenta (L.) and binding to a rat ovarian FSH receptor. Renlund, S., Hallin, P. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Aromatase inhibitors prevent granulosa cell differentiation: an obligatory role for estrogens in luteinizing hormone receptor expression. Knecht, M., Brodie, A.M., Catt, K.J. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin-like growth factor-I, regulating aromatase expression through steroidogenic factor 1, supports estrogen-dependent tumor Leydig cell proliferation. Sirianni, R., Chimento, A., Malivindi, R., Mazzitelli, I., Andò, S., Pezzi, V. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on aromatase activity and androgen receptor binding in the rat preoptic area. Roselli, C.E. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Epidermal growth factor influences growth and differentiation of rat granulosa cells. Bendell, J.J., Dorrington, J.H. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-6 decreases estrogen production and messenger ribonucleic acid expression encoding aromatase during in vitro cytodifferentiation of rat granulosa cell. Tamura, K., Kawaguchi, T., Hara, T., Takatoshi, S., Tohei, A., Miyajima, A., Seishi, T., Kogo, H. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of aromatization in the restoration of male rat reproductive behavior. Vagell, M.E., McGinnis, M.Y. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I accelerate PMSG-induced differentiation of granulosa cells. Hutchinson, L.A., Findlay, J.K., Herington, A.C. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression and functional analysis of liver receptor homologue 1 as a potential steroidogenic factor in rat ovary. Liu, D.L., Liu, W.Z., Li, Q.L., Wang, H.M., Qian, D., Treuter, E., Zhu, C. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Site of action of androgens on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced aromatase activity in cultured rat granulosa cells. Daniel, S.A., Armstrong, D.T. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential response of luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenic enzyme gene expression to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in the neonatal and adult rat testis. Pakarinen, P., Vihko, K.K., Voutilainen, R., Huhtaniemi, I. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Direct inhibitory effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone upon follicle-stimulating hormone induction of luteinizing hormone receptor and aromatase activity in rat granulosa cells. Hsueh, A.J., Wang, C., Erickson, G.F. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Unaltered development of the initial follicular waves and normal pubertal onset in female rats after neonatal deletion of the follicular reserve. Guigon, C.J., Mazaud, S., Forest, M.G., Brailly-Tabard, S., Coudouel, N., Magre, S. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Truncated equine LH beta and asparagine(56)-deglycosylated equine LH alpha combine to produce a potent FSH antagonist. Butnev, V.Y., Singh, V., Nguyen, V.T., Bousfield, G.R. J. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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