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Gene Review

Agrn  -  agrin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Agrin
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Disease relevance of Agrn


Psychiatry related information on Agrn

  • Here, we report an entirely unanticipated role for agrin in the dual modulation of electrical and chemical intercellular communication that occurs during the critical period of synapse formation [6].

High impact information on Agrn


Biological context of Agrn


Anatomical context of Agrn


Associations of Agrn with chemical compounds

  • This agrin-induced increase in rapsyn-AChR interaction strongly correlates with clustering, because staurosporine and herbimycin blocked both the increase and clustering [15].
  • Agrin induced the formation of patches in C2 myotubes that stained intensely with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies and within which AChRs were relatively immobile [13].
  • Several lines of evidence have led to the hypothesis that agrin, a protein extracted from the electric organ of Torpedo, is similar to the molecules in the synaptic cleft basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction that direct the formation of acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholinesterase aggregates on regenerating myofibers [16].
  • In addition, we found a site encoding seven amino acids at the NH2-terminal end of agrin that is alternatively spliced [17].
  • The presence of a four-amino acid insert at the y site is necessary and sufficient to confer heparin binding ability to agrin [18].

Regulatory relationships of Agrn

  • Collectively, these results suggest that agrin might modulate the expression of neuron-specific genes involved in neurite elongation by inducing CREB phosphorylation through the activation of the MAPK signal transduction pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons [19].
  • Addition of MMP-3 to protein extracts from control brain caused neuronal agrin degradation [4].
  • We have previously shown that agrin regulates the rates of axonal and dendritic elongation by modulating the expression of microtubule-associated proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons [19].

Other interactions of Agrn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Agrn


  1. Agrin becomes concentrated at neuroeffector junctions in developing rodent urinary bladder. Gingras, J., Spicer, J., Altares, M., Zhu, Q., Kuchel, G.A., Ferns, M. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective regulation of agrin mRNA induction and alternative splicing in PC12 cells by Ras-dependent actions of nerve growth factor. Smith, M.A., Fanger, G.R., O'Connor, L.T., Bridle, P., Maue, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction in glomerular heparan sulfate correlates with complement deposition and albuminuria in active Heymann nephritis. Raats, C.J., Luca, M.E., Bakker, M.A., Van Der Wal, A., Heeringa, P., Van Goor, H., Van Den Born, J., De Heer, E., Berden, J.H. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and agrin cleavage in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Solé, S., Petegnief, V., Gorina, R., Chamorro, A., Planas, A.M. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Antisense agrin cDNA transfection blocks neuroblastoma cell-induced acetylcholine receptor aggregation when co-cultured with myotubes. Pun, S., Tsim, K.W. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Agrin mediates a rapid switch from electrical coupling to chemical neurotransmission during synaptogenesis. Martin, A.O., Alonso, G., Guérineau, N.C. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Agrin mediates cell contact-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering. Campanelli, J.T., Hoch, W., Rupp, F., Kreiner, T., Scheller, R.H. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Casein kinase 2-dependent serine phosphorylation of MuSK regulates acetylcholine receptor aggregation at the neuromuscular junction. Cheusova, T., Khan, M.A., Schubert, S.W., Gavin, A.C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H.R., Hashemolhosseini, S. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Developmental regulation of highly active alternatively spliced forms of agrin. Hoch, W., Ferns, M., Campanelli, J.T., Hall, Z.W., Scheller, R.H. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Targeting of recombinant agrin to axonal growth cones. Neuhuber, B., Daniels, M.P. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of Trisk 51, agrin and nicotinic-acetycholine receptor epsilon-subunit during muscle development in a novel three-dimensional muscle-neuronal co-culture system. Bach, A.D., Beier, J.P., Stark, G.B. Cell Tissue Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure and chromosomal localization of the mammalian agrin gene. Rupp, F., Ozçelik, T., Linial, M., Peterson, K., Francke, U., Scheller, R. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Immobilization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse C2 myotubes by agrin-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Meier, T., Perez, G.M., Wallace, B.G. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure and expression of a rat agrin. Rupp, F., Payan, D.G., Magill-Solc, C., Cowan, D.M., Scheller, R.H. Neuron (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Agrin regulates rapsyn interaction with surface acetylcholine receptors, and this underlies cytoskeletal anchoring and clustering. Moransard, M., Borges, L.S., Willmann, R., Marangi, P.A., Brenner, H.R., Ferns, M.J., Fuhrer, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Agrin-like molecules at synaptic sites in normal, denervated, and damaged skeletal muscles. Reist, N.E., Magill, C., McMahan, U.J. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. An amino-terminal extension is required for the secretion of chick agrin and its binding to extracellular matrix. Denzer, A.J., Gesemann, M., Schumacher, B., Ruegg, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Alternative splicing of agrin regulates its binding to heparin alpha-dystroglycan, and the cell surface. O'Toole, J.J., Deyst, K.A., Bowe, M.A., Nastuk, M.A., McKechnie, B.A., Fallon, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. MAPK signal transduction pathway mediates agrin effects on neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Karasewski, L., Ferreira, A. J. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurotrophins regulate agrin-induced postsynaptic differentiation. Wells, D.G., McKechnie, B.A., Kelkar, S., Fallon, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. MAGI-1c: a synaptic MAGUK interacting with muSK at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. Strochlic, L., Cartaud, A., Labas, V., Hoch, W., Rossier, J., Cartaud, J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Tissue- and age-specific expression patterns of alternatively spliced agrin mRNA transcripts in embryonic rat suggest novel developmental roles. Stone, D.M., Nikolics, K. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Localization and alternative splicing of agrin mRNA in adult rat brain: transcripts encoding isoforms that aggregate acetylcholine receptors are not restricted to cholinergic regions. O'Connor, L.T., Lauterborn, J.C., Gall, C.M., Smith, M.A. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential expression of agrin in renal basement membranes as revealed by domain-specific antibodies. Raats, C.J., Bakker, M.A., Hoch, W., Tamboer, W.P., Groffen, A.J., van den Heuvel, L.P., Berden, J.H., van den Born, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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