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Gene Review

ACTB  -  actin, beta

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of ACTB

  • We used the vector AdlacZ, an E1 and E3 deleted replication defective adenoviral vector that contains the beta-galactosidase gene driven by the beta-actin promoter and the cytomegalovirus enhancer [1].
  • An RT-qPCR amplifying a fragment of the beta-actin mRNA was also developed and validated as internal control for the bluetongue specific assays [2].
  • Culture supernatants caused a 7-fold decrease in viability of bovine leukemia cells and increased cell permeability that was accompanied by release of beta-actin into the cell culture supernatant [3].

High impact information on ACTB

  • Genes typically used as internal controls, GAPDH and beta-actin, increased expression levels approximately 4-fold after injury, making them unsuitable for use as normalization genes in this study [4].
  • Motility was assessed by digital imaging microscopy before Western blot analysis, coimmunoprecipitation, or colocalization studies using ARF6, beta-actin, or beta-actin-binding protein-specific antibodies [5].
  • Colocalization studies reveal that the Q67L and WT ARF6-HA are enriched at the leading edge with beta-actin; but T27N and N122I ARF6-HA are localized on endosomes together with the beta-actin capping protein, betacap73 [5].
  • X-ray diffraction data were collected on an imaging plate scanner at the DORIS storage ring (DESY, Hamburg), and were phased by molecular replacement, using a search model derived from the 2.55 A structure of profilin complexed to beta-actin [6].
  • The RT-PCR assay demonstrated that the spontaneous expression level of the alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor mRNA was much higher in bovine RPE than in neural retina; the alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor/beta-actin ratio from RPE was 0.33 +/- 0.15 (n = 4), whereas that from neural retina was virtually zero [7].

Biological context of ACTB


Anatomical context of ACTB

  • Swim-up selected bovine spermatozoa were mixed with the Pst1 beta-actin GFP construct (6 x 10(6) spermatozoids were incubated with 600 ng of muDNA), submitted or not to electroporation (300 V, 25 F) and treated or not with DNase I [13].
  • 2. Preparations of profilactin from the three calf tissues spleen, thymus and brain contain a mixture of beta actin and gamma actin [14].
  • High density primary cultures of bovine chondrocytes were exposed to hydrostatic pressure applied intermittently at 1 Hz or constantly for 4 hours in serum-free medium or in medium containing 1% fetal bovine serum. mRNAs for aggrecan, types I and II collagen, and beta-actin were analyzed by Northern blots and quantified by slot blots [15].
  • Actins in the Mg-form were less stable than the Ca-forms, and the stability of the different isoforms decreased in the following order: rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin = bovine cytoplasmic gamma-actin > yeast actin > cytoplasmic beta-actin [16].
  • U3 snRNA and beta-actin mRNA levels started to increase at the morula stage and blastocysts contained 118 and 110 times more U3 snRNA and beta-actin mRNA, respectively, than 6- to 8-cell embryos [17].

Associations of ACTB with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ACTB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACTB

  • The three-dimensional structure of bovine profilin-beta-actin has been solved to 2.55 A resolution by X-ray crystallography [27].
  • In contrast, when steady state levels of mRNA for type I collagen chains were examined by Northern blot analysis, the concentration of PTH that reduced collagen synthesis by 35-45% (10(-8) M), caused a net decrease of approximately 80-96% in the number of procollagen transcripts; a small reduction in beta-actin mRNA levels was also observed [28].
  • CCD cells were isolated by immunodissection and mRNA levels of the H-ATPase 31 kD subunit and of beta-actin were determined from the same cDNA samples by quantitative RT-PCR [29].
  • Up to 60% integration via HR was obtained following pronuclear microinjection of a Pst1 beta-actin GFP DNA construction [13].
  • This increase in actin mRNA abundance is observable by its preferential localization (seen by in situ hybridization) in the lamellae bordering the wound edge in association with beta-actin, which is exclusively localized there [30].


  1. Adhesion of transplanted chondrocytes onto cartilage in vitro and in vivo. Doherty, P.J., Zhang, H., Manolopoulos, V., Trogadis, J., Tremblay, L., Marshall, K.W. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Bluetongue virus detection by two real-time RT-qPCRs targeting two different genomic segments. Toussaint, J.F., Sailleau, C., Breard, E., Zientara, S., De Clercq, K. J. Virol. Methods (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Actin polymerization enhances Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxicity. Basaraba, R.J., Byerly, A.N., Mosier, D.A., Butine, M.D., Stewart, G.C., Fenwick, B.W., Chengappa, M.M., Highlander, S.K. Vet. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanical injury of cartilage explants causes specific time-dependent changes in chondrocyte gene expression. Lee, J.H., Fitzgerald, J.B., Dimicco, M.A., Grodzinsky, A.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Betacap73-ARF6 interactions modulate cell shape and motility after injury in vitro. Riley, K.N., Maldonado, A.E., Tellier, P., D'Souza-Schorey, C., Herman, I.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystallization and structure determination of bovine profilin at 2.0 A resolution. Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E.S., Goonesekere, N.C., Rozycki, M.D., Myslik, J.C., Dauter, Z., Lindberg, U., Schutt, C.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor mRNA in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Horie, K., Hirasawa, A., Masuda, K., Tsujimoto, G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning of ACTH-regulated genes in the adrenal cortex. Raikhinstein, M., Hanukoglu, I. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the ovine placenta of normal and growth restricted fetuses. Limesand, S.W., Regnault, T.R., Hay, W.W. Placenta (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Casein, actin, and tubulin expression during early involution in bovine and murine mammary tissue. Wiens, D.J., Brooks, C.L., Hodgson, C.P. J. Dairy Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Construction and characteristics of 3-end enriched cDNA library from individual embryos of cattle. Long, J.E., He, L.Q., Cai, X., Ren, Z.R., Huang, S.Z., Zeng, Y.T. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Postmortem stability of RNA isolated from bovine reproductive tissues. Fitzpatrick, R., Casey, O.M., Morris, D., Smith, T., Powell, R., Sreenan, J.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Electroporation of bovine spermatozoa to carry DNA containing highly repetitive sequences into oocytes and detection of homologous recombination events. Rieth, A., Pothier, F., Sirard, M.A. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and characterization of profilactin and profilin from calf thymus and brain. Blikstad, I., Sundkvist, I., Eriksson, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro stimulation of articular chondrocyte mRNA and extracellular matrix synthesis by hydrostatic pressure. Smith, R.L., Rusk, S.F., Ellison, B.E., Wessells, P., Tsuchiya, K., Carter, D.R., Caler, W.E., Sandell, L.J., Schurman, D.J. J. Orthop. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Thermal unfolding of G-actin monitored with the DNase I-inhibition assay stabilities of actin isoforms. Schüler, H., Lindberg, U., Schutt, C.E., Karlsson, R. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in the relative abundance of various housekeeping gene transcripts in in vitro-produced early bovine embryos. Bilodeau-Goeseels, S., Schultz, G.A. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. DNA damaging agents increase gadd153 (CHOP-10) messenger RNA levels in bovine preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro. Fontanier-Razzaq, N., McEvoy, T.G., Robinson, J.J., Rees, W.D. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in bovine follicle and corpus luteum. Tetsuka, M., Yamamoto, S., Hayashida, N., Hayashi, K.G., Hayashi, M., Acosta, T.J., Miyamoto, A. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition by dexamethasone of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 expression in alveolar macrophages from cows. Katoh, N., Ito, T. Res. Vet. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Serotonin produces both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in culture. Lee, S.L., Wang, W.W., Lanzillo, J.J., Fanburg, B.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos. Goossens, K., Van Poucke, M., Van Soom, A., Vandesompele, J., Van Zeveren, A., Peelman, L.J. BMC Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of mechanical stress on the mRNA expression of S100A4 and cytoskeletal components by periodontal ligament cells. Duarte, W.R., Mikuni-Takagaki, Y., Kawase, T., Limura, T., Oida, S., Ohya, K., Takenaga, K., Ishikawa, L., Kasugai, S. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Endotoxin alters the expression of extracellular matrix proteins by cultured endothelial cells. Sawhney, R.S., Bone, R.C. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions differently regulate cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix protein gene expression. Nagahara, S., Matsuda, T. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Absence of oxytocin-neurophysin messenger RNA in the day-18 bovine conceptus. Van Vliet, R.A., Walton, J.S., Wildeman, A.G., Betteridge, K.J., Gibbins, A.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. The structure of crystalline profilin-beta-actin. Schutt, C.E., Myslik, J.C., Rozycki, M.D., Goonesekere, N.C., Lindberg, U. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Parathyroid hormone inhibits collagen synthesis at both ribonucleic acid and protein levels in rat osteogenic sarcoma cells. Partridge, N.C., Dickson, C.A., Kopp, K., Teitelbaum, S.L., Crouch, E.C., Kahn, A.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of acid/base balance on H-ATPase 31 kD subunit mRNA levels in collecting duct cells. Fejes-Tóth, G., Náray-Fejes-Tóth, A. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular mechanisms regulating the vascular endothelial cell motile response to injury. Herman, I.M. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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