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Gene Review

ACTB  -  actin, beta

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: Bact, actin
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Disease relevance of RCJMB04_4h19

  • In the present investigation we administered single i.v. injections of 1 x 10(10) genomes of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) encoding the human alpha-gal A gene driven by a modified chicken beta-actin (CAG) promoter to alpha-gal A knockout (Fabry) mice [1].
  • The hybrid cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter along with woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element enhances the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines [2].
  • A recombinant baculovirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of the influenza virus, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), under the control of the chicken beta-actin promoter, was constructed [3].
  • To determine whether HIV-1 tat can transactivate a heterologous promoter lacking HIV sequences other than the TAR element, TAR was placed downstream of the chicken beta-actin promoter [4].
  • An alkaline phosphatase (AP) reporter construct driven by the chicken beta-actin promoter was packaged in either AAV6 or AAV2 capsids and delivered to rat hearts in vivo by direct injection [5].

High impact information on RCJMB04_4h19

  • A construct derived from the beta-actin locus was transfected into other chicken cell lines to determine the cell type specificity of the phenomenon [6].
  • After beta-actin, the cytosolic brain isoform of creatine kinase was the next most abundant bundle protein; at approximately 0.5 mM, creatine kinase is capable of maintaining high ATP levels despite 1 mM/s ATP consumption by the plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase [7].
  • Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) localize beta-actin mRNA to their lamellae, a process important for the maintenance of cell polarity and motility [8].
  • The localization of beta-actin mRNA to the leading lamellae of chicken fibroblasts and neurite growth cones of developing neurons requires a 54-nt localization signal (the zipcode) within the 3' untranslated region [9].
  • Sequences responsible for intracellular localization of beta-actin messenger RNA also affect cell phenotype [10].

Biological context of RCJMB04_4h19

  • The nucleotide sequence of the chick beta-actin gene was determined [11].
  • A comparison of the promoter region for PRPS1 with those of other housekeeping genes revealed a homology resembling that of the beta-actin gene [12].
  • The comparison of methylated and unmethylated beta-actin revealed that in the absence of a methyl group on H73, ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release occurred prior to, and seemingly independently of, filament formation [13].
  • In contrast, the expression of bcl-2 transgenes having the same (chicken beta-actin) promoter varies drastically when they are independently integrated at random insertion sites [14].
  • Treatment of chicken embryo fibroblasts with antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the localization sequence (zip code) in the 3' untranslated region leads to delocalization of beta-actin mRNA, alteration of cell phenotype, and a decrease in cell motility [15].

Anatomical context of RCJMB04_4h19

  • In primary myoblast cultures, beta-actin mRNA increased sharply during the proliferative phase before fusion and steadily declined thereafter. alpha-Cardiac actin mRNA increased to levels 15-fold greater than alpha-skeletal actin mRNA in prefusion myoblasts (36 h), and remained at elevated levels [16].
  • Hybridization experiments showed that at day 10 in ovo (stage 36), embryonic hindlimbs contain low levels of actin mRNA, predominantly consisting of the alpha-cardiac and beta-actin isotypes [16].
  • In contrast to the chick skeletal muscle actin gene the beta-actin gene lacks the Cys codon between the initiator ATG and the codon for the N-terminal amino acid of the mature protein [11].
  • The expression of cytoplasmic beta-actin and cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle alpha-actins during early avian cardiogenesis was analyzed by in situ hybridization with mRNA-specific single-stranded DNA probes [17].
  • Thus, the polymerization properties of yeast-expressed wild-type beta-actin can be compared with normally methylated beta-actin isolated from calf thymus [13].

Associations of RCJMB04_4h19 with chemical compounds

  • Yeast does not have the methyl transferase necessary to methylate recombinant beta-actin [13].
  • Actin isolated from the liver of the electric fish Torpedo marmorata appears to consist of a single isoelectric species with an apparent isoelectric point similar to the beta-actin component of mammalian brain [18].
  • Complementary phosphorothioate oligonucleotides against the zipcode delocalized endogenous beta-actin mRNA, whereas those complementary to the region just outside the zipcode, or sense oligonucleotides, did not [10].
  • To test the method, a single copy murine bcl-2 cDNA driven by either a chicken beta-actin promoter or a human beta-actin promoter has been inserted immediately 5' to the X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus by a directly selectable homologous recombination event [14].
  • Chicken 18S and 28S rRNA synthesis was inhibited, and actin mRNA levels measured with cloned cDNA encoding chicken beta-actin slowly declined in canavanine-treated cells [19].

Physical interactions of RCJMB04_4h19

  • The effect of heat shock on beta-actin mRNA is opposite to the apparent stabilizing effects of elevated temperatures on HSP70 mRNA [20].

Regulatory relationships of RCJMB04_4h19

  • Of these constant expressed genes, 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA are highly expressed; beta-actin intermediately expressed and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures [21].
  • The expression of cytokine mRNA was expressed relative to the level of beta-actin mRNA [22].

Other interactions of RCJMB04_4h19


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RCJMB04_4h19


  1. Long-term correction of globotriaosylceramide storage in Fabry mice by recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Park, J., Murray, G.J., Limaye, A., Quirk, J.M., Gelderman, M.P., Brady, R.O., Qasba, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The hybrid cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter along with woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element enhances the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines. Garg, S., Oran, A.E., Hon, H., Jacob, J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Baculovirus induces an innate immune response and confers protection from lethal influenza virus infection in mice. Abe, T., Takahashi, H., Hamazaki, H., Miyano-Kurosaki, N., Matsuura, Y., Takaku, H. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Transactivation of heterologous promoters by HIV-1 tat. Han, P., Brown, R., Barsoum, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Widespread and early myocardial gene expression by adeno-associated virus vector type 6 with a beta-actin hybrid promoter. Kawamoto, S., Shi, Q., Nitta, Y., Miyazaki, J., Allen, M.D. Mol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased ratio of targeted to random integration after transfection of chicken B cell lines. Buerstedde, J.M., Takeda, S. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Hair Bundles Are Specialized for ATP Delivery via Creatine Kinase. Shin, J.B., Streijger, F., Beynon, A., Peters, T., Gadzala, L., McMillen, D., Bystrom, C., Van der Zee, C.E., Wallimann, T., Gillespie, P.G. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Two ZBP1 KH domains facilitate beta-actin mRNA localization, granule formation, and cytoskeletal attachment. Farina, K.L., Huttelmaier, S., Musunuru, K., Darnell, R., Singer, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A predominantly nuclear protein affecting cytoplasmic localization of beta-actin mRNA in fibroblasts and neurons. Gu, W., Pan, F., Zhang, H., Bassell, G.J., Singer, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequences responsible for intracellular localization of beta-actin messenger RNA also affect cell phenotype. Kislauskis, E.H., Zhu, X., Singer, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. The nucleotide sequence of the chick cytoplasmic beta-actin gene. Kost, T.A., Theodorakis, N., Hughes, S.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure of the rat PRPS1 gene encoding phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase subunit I. Shimada, H., Taira, M., Yamada, K., Iizasa, T., Tatibana, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of MeH73 in actin polymerization and ATP hydrolysis. Nyman, T., Schüler, H., Korenbaum, E., Schutt, C.E., Karlsson, R., Lindberg, U. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Single-copy transgenic mice with chosen-site integration. Bronson, S.K., Plaehn, E.G., Kluckman, K.D., Hagaman, J.R., Maeda, N., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. The physiological significance of beta -actin mRNA localization in determining cell polarity and directional motility. Shestakova, E.A., Singer, R.H., Condeelis, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Sequential expression of chicken actin genes during myogenesis. Hayward, L.J., Schwartz, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Sequential activation of alpha-actin genes during avian cardiogenesis: vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcripts mark the onset of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Ruzicka, D.L., Schwartz, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Actins from mammals, bird, fish and slime mold characterized by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. Zechel, K., Weber, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Stress mRNA metabolism in canavanine-treated chicken embryo cells. White, C.N., Hightower, L.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of avian HSP70 gene expression. Banerji, S.S., Berg, L., Morimoto, R.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Li, Y.P., Bang, D.D., Handberg, K.J., Jorgensen, P.H., Zhang, M.F. Vet. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide. Sijben, J.W., Schrama, J.W., Parmentier, H.K., van der Poel, J.J., Klasing, K.C. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgene prevents acetaldehyde-induced cell injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Li, S.Y., Gomelsky, M., Duan, J., Zhang, Z., Gomelsky, L., Zhang, X., Epstein, P.N., Ren, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential alteration of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA in the central nervous system of hens treated with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP). Damodaran, T.V., Abdel-Rahman, A., El-Sourady, M.H., Abou-Donia, M.B. Neurochem. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of messenger ribonucleic acids of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in granulosa and theca layers of chicken preovulatory follicles. Zhang, C., Shimada, K., Saito, N., Kansaku, N. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative evaluation of phenobarbital-induced CYP3A and CYP2H1 gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR in Bantam, Bantamized White Leghorn and White Leghorn chicks. Goriya, H.V., Kalia, A., Bhavsar, S.K., Joshi, C.G., Rank, D.N., Thaker, A.M. J. Vet. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. A chicken beta-actin gene can complement a disruption of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACT1 gene. Karlsson, R., Aspenström, P., Byström, A.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Actin isoform compartments in chicken gizzard smooth muscle cells. North, A.J., Gimona, M., Lando, Z., Small, J.V. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of promoter strengths on gene delivery into mammalian brain cells using AAV vectors. Doll, R.F., Crandall, J.E., Dyer, C.A., Aucoin, J.M., Smith, F.I. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Prolactin receptor gene expression in rat mammary gland and liver during pregnancy and lactation. Jahn, G.A., Edery, M., Belair, L., Kelly, P.A., Djiane, J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Myocardial injection of CA promoter-based plasmid mediates efficient transgene expression in rat heart. Huang, J., Ito, Y., Kobune, M., Sasaki, K., Nakamura, K., Dehari, H., Takahashi, K., Ikeda, K., Uchida, H., Kato, K., Hamada, H. The journal of gene medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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