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Gene Review

IGKV1-5  -  immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-5

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: IGKV, IGKV15, Ig kappa chain V-I region HK102, L12, L12a, ...
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Disease relevance of IGKV1-5

  • CD4 contains four extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, the first of which (V1) is sufficient for HIV binding [1].
  • Interestingly, V3, but not V1, was detected in two Wilms' tumor and paired normal kidney specimens [2].
  • We have compared the expression of two of these variants (V1 and V3) in several human fetal and postnatal tissues (including liver) as well as in hepatoblastomas (HBs) and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) [2].
  • These proteins function in the elongation step of protein synthesis in an analogous fashion to the L7/L12 ribosomal proteins of E. coli [3].
  • The results suggest a model in which antibody access to the CD4bs on the envelope spike of HIV-1 is restricted by the orientation and/or dynamics of the V1/V2 and V3 loops, and b12 avoids these restrictions [4].

Psychiatry related information on IGKV1-5

  • Mice that showed complete tumor regression were immune to challenge with the parental cell line 38C13 and V1, a variant of 38C13 that does not express the Id [5].

High impact information on IGKV1-5

  • The location of these mutations in the L12 linker, which bisects the alpha-helical rod region of intermediate filament proteins, identifies another keratin mutation cluster leading to hereditary skin fragility syndromes [6].
  • Missing links: Weber-Cockayne keratin mutations implicate the L12 linker domain in effective cytoskeleton function [6].
  • A 180-kD glycoprotein (gp180) recognized by mAbs B9 and L12 has been identified and shown to be important in CD8+ T cell activation by IEC [7].
  • A particularly striking insertion of several lysine/arginine residues occurs in L12 and is called the K-loop [8].
  • By the yeast two-hybrid assay with various deletion mutants of PKC, FEZ1 was shown to interact with the NH2-terminal variable region (V1) of PKCzeta and weakly with that of PKCepsilon [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of IGKV1-5


Biological context of IGKV1-5

  • Based on nucleotide sequences of twenty unique, expressed IGKV-J combinations, there are at least four IGKV families and two J segments [15].
  • Southern blot analysis revealed each IGK-V family contains multiple gene segments totaling at least thirty-five IGKV in the opossum genome [15].
  • Finally, we present evidence that the most activating suppressor mutation (G498S) increases Raf-1 activity by introducing a novel phosphorylation site into the L12 activation loop of the Raf-1 kinase domain [16].
  • V1 contains three sequences homologous to the antigen-complementarity-determining regions (CDR1 to -3) of immunoglobulin variable domains [1].
  • The recently solved structure of protein L7/L12 and its proposed modes of dimerization have helped to understand the structural flexibility of this protein, which occurs as two dimers in the ribosome [17].

Anatomical context of IGKV1-5

  • Finally, L12 induced sensitized lymphocytes to produce anti-CA mannan antibodies in vitro in the absence of antigen [18].
  • Two T cell tumor clones, L12-R1 and L12-R4, derived from the spontaneously in vitro transformed cell lines L12 originally established from fetal calf serum-primed C57BL/6 spleen cells were found to produce high IFN amounts upon mitogen stimulation [19].
  • Using highly purified recombinant gonococcal L12, we show that preincubation of Inv(-) GC with micromolar amounts of rL12 leads to a subsequent five- to eightfold increase in invasion of the human endometrial cell line, Hec1B [20].
  • We suggest that in the presence of ATP kinesin's putative microtubule binding regions L8, L12, L11, alpha4, alpha5, and alpha6 form a face complementary in shape to the microtubule surface; in the presence of ADP, the microtubule binding face adopts a more convex shape relative to the ATP-bound form, reducing kinesin's affinity to the microtubule [21].
  • Each of V1, V2 and V3 mRNA showed significant decreases in expression in painful and ruptured tendons, but V0 was not significantly changed [22].

Associations of IGKV1-5 with chemical compounds

  • Although all three nascent gene products begin with the sequence fMet-Ser, the formation of fMet-Ser can be used to distinguish between the synthesis of beta-lactamase and either L12 or the LS of RbuBPCase by using different serine isoacceptor tRNA species [23].
  • To investigate whether other regions in V1 take part in gp120 binding, we substituted alanine for each of 64 amino acids, including all of the hydrophilic residues in this domain [1].
  • An analysis of the kinetic properties of FucT III and the III/V1 mutant demonstrated that III/V1 had a 40-fold reduction in its affinity for the H-type 1 acceptor substrate (Fucalpha1,2Galbeta1,3GlcNAc) and 4-fold reduction in its affinity for GDP-fucose when compared with FucT III [24].
  • The breakpoint on chromosome 16 was found to cut between the V1 and C3 regions of the lambda locus [25].
  • The connection of lipophilic gallic acid derivatives at the 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions of the rigid 2,6-bis(1-ethyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine core provides two pro-mesogenic tridentate ligands L10 and L12, whose molecular shapes, anisometries, and directional intermolecular pi-stacking can be tuned [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IGKV1-5

  • 1) The protein migrated between 150 and 180 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and could be resolved by Western blot using mAb B9 or mAb L12 [27].
  • Two epithelial specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), mAb B9 and mAb L12, are potent inhibitors of this mixed epithelial/T cell reaction but not of conventional mixed lymphocyte reactions [27].
  • The L7/L12 gene of B. melitensis was amplified by PCR and subcloned in the Escherichia coli pQE30 plasmid [28].
  • To understand the structure-function relationship of V1 peptide, its solution conformation was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy, which showed a random conformation similar to that of the corresponding N-terminus in native vMIP-II [29].
  • Northern blot analysis on days 1, 5, and 11 of pseudopregnancy revealed an approximately 2-fold increase in the V-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level on day 5 to that on day 1, and no significant change was observed between those on day 5 and day 11 [30].


  1. Mapping the CD4 binding site for human immunodeficiency virus by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Ashkenazi, A., Presta, L.G., Marsters, S.A., Camerato, T.R., Rosenthal, K.A., Fendly, B.M., Capon, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Fetal- and tumor-specific regulation of growth hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human liver. Zogopoulos, G., Albrecht, S., Pietsch, T., Alpert, L., von Schweinitz, D., Lefèbvre, Y., Goodyer, C.G. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of ribosomal protein autoantigens. Francoeur, A.M., Peebles, C.L., Heckman, K.J., Lee, J.C., Tan, E.M. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel human antibody against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is V1, V2, and V3 loop dependent and helps delimit the epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody immunoglobulin G1 b12. Zwick, M.B., Kelleher, R., Jensen, R., Labrijn, A.F., Wang, M., Quinnan, G.V., Parren, P.W., Burton, D.R. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. A murine B cell lymphoma expressing human HER2 / neu undergoes spontaneous tumor regression and elicits antitumor immunity. Penichet, M.L., Dela Cruz, J.S., Challita-Eid, P.M., Rosenblatt, J.D., Morrison, S.L. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Missing links: Weber-Cockayne keratin mutations implicate the L12 linker domain in effective cytoskeleton function. Rugg, E.L., Morley, S.M., Smith, F.J., Boxer, M., Tidman, M.J., Navsaria, H., Leigh, I.M., Lane, E.B. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Defective expression of gp180, a novel CD8 ligand on intestinal epithelial cells, in inflammatory bowel disease. Toy, L.S., Yio, X.Y., Lin, A., Honig, S., Mayer, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. KIF1D is a fast non-processive kinesin that demonstrates novel K-loop-dependent mechanochemistry. Rogers, K.R., Weiss, S., Crevel, I., Brophy, P.J., Geeves, M., Cross, R. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-76 protein involved in axonal outgrowth is a protein kinase C zeta-interacting protein. Kuroda, S., Nakagawa, N., Tokunaga, C., Tatematsu, K., Tanizawa, K. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Specific N-linked and O-linked glycosylation modifications in the envelope V1 domain of simian immunodeficiency virus variants that evolve in the host alter recognition by neutralizing antibodies. Chackerian, B., Rudensey, L.M., Overbaugh, J. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Enzymatic cleavage of a CD4 immunoadhesin generates crystallizable, biologically active Fd-like fragments. Chamow, S.M., Peers, D.H., Byrn, R.A., Mulkerrin, M.G., Harris, R.J., Wang, W.C., Bjorkman, P.J., Capon, D.J., Ashkenazi, A. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. A point mutation in ribosomal protein L7/L12 reduces its ability to form a compact dimer structure and to assemble into the GTPase center. Nomura, T., Mochizuki, R., Dabbs, E.R., Shimizu, Y., Ueda, T., Hachimori, A., Uchiumi, T. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of human polymorphic DNA repair methyltransferase. Inoue, R., Abe, M., Nakabeppu, Y., Sekiguchi, M., Mori, T., Suzuki, T. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Current status of treatment of acute leukemia in adults: an overview of the Memorial experience and review of literature. Clarkson, B.D., Gee, T., Arlin, Z.A., Mertelsmann, R., Kempin, S.J., Dinsmore, R.E., O'Reilly, R.J., Andreeff, M., Berman, E., Little, C. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Marsupial light chains: IGK with four V families in the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Miller, R.D., Bergemann, E.R., Rosenberg, G.H. Immunogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Mammalian Raf-1 is activated by mutations that restore Raf signaling in Drosophila. Cutler, R.E., Morrison, D.K. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. The end of the beginning: structural studies of ribosomal proteins. Chandra Sanyal, S., Liljas, A. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Idiotypy of human anti-Candida albicans antibodies: recurrence, presence of a cross-reactive autoanti-idiotypic-like activity, and role in the induction of specific in vitro antibody response. de Saint Basile, G., Durandy, A., Somme, G., Griscelli, C. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Immune (y) interferon production by murine T cell lymphomas. Landolfo, S., Arnold, B., Suzan, M. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Role of ribosomal protein L12 in gonococcal invasion of Hec1B cells. Spence, J.M., Clark, V.L. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Nucleotide-dependent movements of the kinesin motor domain predicted by simulated annealing. Wriggers, W., Schulten, K. Biophys. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Versican splice variant messenger RNA expression in normal human Achilles tendon and tendinopathies. Corps, A.N., Robinson, A.H., Movin, T., Costa, M.L., Ireland, D.C., Hazleman, B.L., Riley, G.P. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Use of different tRNASer isoacceptor species in vitro to discriminate between the expression of plasmid genes. Cenatiempo, Y., Robakis, N., Meza-Basso, L., Brot, N., Weissbach, H., Reid, B.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Human alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases. II. A single amino acid at the COOH terminus of FucT III and V alters their kinetic properties. Vo, L., Lee, S., Marcinko, M.C., Holmes, E.H., Macher, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. A new variant 15; 16 translocation in mouse plasmacytoma leads to the juxtaposition of c-myc and immunoglobulin lambda. Axelson, H., Panda, C.K., Silva, S., Sugiyama, H., Wiener, F., Klein, G., Sumegi, J. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular control of macroscopic cubic, columnar, and lamellar organizations in luminescent lanthanide-containing thermotropic liquid crystals. Terazzi, E., Torelli, S., Bernardinelli, G., Rivera, J.P., Bénech, J.M., Bourgogne, C., Donnio, B., Guillon, D., Imbert, D., Bünzli, J.C., Pinto, A., Jeannerat, D., Piguet, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of a 180-kDa intestinal epithelial cell membrane glycoprotein, gp180. A candidate molecule mediating t cell-epithelial cell interactions. Yio, X.Y., Mayer, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 is a major component in the antigenicity of brucellin INRA for delayed-type hypersensitivity in brucella-sensitized guinea pigs. Bachrach, G., Banai, M., Bardenstein, S., Hoida, G., Genizi, A., Bercovier, H. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Structure-function study and anti-HIV activity of synthetic peptide analogues derived from viral chemokine vMIP-II. Luo, Z., Fan, X., Zhou, N., Hiraoka, M., Luo, J., Kaji, H., Huang, Z. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in the gene expression of a protein with the cdc10/SWI6 motif, V-1, during rat follicular development and corpus luteum formation. Song, S.Y., Asakai, R., Kenmotsu, N., Taoka, M., Isobe, T., Yamakuni, T. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
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