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Gene Review

ARSI  -  arylsulfatase family, member I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ASI, Arylsulfatase I, FLJ16069, SPG66
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Disease relevance of ARSI

  • Having abdominal pain was associated with an adjusted 5.5 fold increase in PSI (P=0.05) and a 4.2 fold increase in ASI (P=0.10) [1].
  • ASI seemed to be beneficial in stage III and stage IV melanoma when given in the adjuvant setting, while causing only very mild side effects [2].
  • Use of the ASI titanium stent in the management of bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia [3].
  • DESIGN: All 148 patients who completed 1 year of MMT underwent random and twice-weekly observed urine analysis for various drugs of abuse, responded to self-report questionnaires (SCL-90-R; POMS; HIV/HCV risk-taking behaviors), interviews (ASI) and underwent testing for hepatitis C [4].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare two ethnically distinct Ethiopian populations (Oromo Arsi in Elka in the Rift Valley and Anyuak in Punjido in Gambella) for two widely used anthropometric indices of protein-energy malnutrition: body mass index < 18.5 and arm muscle circumference < 80% of the median of the US NHANES reference data [5].

Psychiatry related information on ARSI

  • CONCLUSIONS: This study and previous research suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be a feasible alternative to ASI interviews for monitoring substance abuse patients' treatment outcomes [6].
  • Significant differences between the PTSD and non-PTSD groups were found in PTSD and trauma-related variables, notably social variables and distress associated with traumatic experiences, but few differences were found in addiction severity (medical and psychiatric composite scores of the ASI) and psychiatric symptomatology [7].
  • We explored the relation of socio-financial, physical and mental health factors (ASI) to risk behaviour (Qr23) for contracting blood-borne infections among IDUs (Addiction Severity Index and Questionnaire for risk behaviour) [8].
  • After controlling for trait anxiety, the ASI was not predictive of the development of panic disorder [9].
  • Other ASI outcomes differed by personality disorder; antisocial addicts had more legal problems, and narcissistic addicts had more medical problems [10].

High impact information on ARSI

  • However, heterologous expression of ASI(-) in cultured cells showed decreased affinity for [3H]ryanodine but similar Ca2+ dependency, and decreased channel activity in single-channel recording when compared with wild-type (WT) RyR1 [11].
  • In support of this, RyR1-knockout myotubes expressing ASI(-) exhibited a decreased incidence of Ca2+ oscillations during caffeine exposure compared with that observed for myotubes expressing WT-RyR1 [11].
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of microsatellite markers BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S250 for ASI in HNPCC cancers was 100%, 94%, 72%, 50%, and 50%, respectively [12].
  • A kin-8 promoter::gfp fusion gene was expressed in ASI and many other neurons as well as in pharyngeal and head muscles [13].
  • These results show that the kin-8 mutation causes the Daf-c phenotype through reduction of the daf-7 gene expression and that KIN-8 function is cell-autonomous for the dye-filling in ASI [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of ARSI

  • Some measures of alcohol and drug use (i.e., the ASI Drug Composite Score and the Enhanced Risk subscale of the alcohol expectancy measure) were more consistently related to the specific risk behaviors measured than were others (e.g., the ASI Alcohol Composite Score), while most measures showed little or no association with protective behaviors [14].
  • Only 4.2% of parents whose children showed no abnormal values, except for obesity, attended the lecture, compared with 20.3% (P < 0.01) or 16.9% (P < 0.05) of parents whose children had abnormal levels of cholesterol or abnormal ASI [15].

Biological context of ARSI

  • Thus, the simultaneous identification of TAA and the molecular mechanisms involved in antigen presentation and recognition by the immune system make the use of ASI a real possibility [16].
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly improved by ASI supplementation in both TN and HS groups [17].
  • In conclusion, ASI supplementation to the basal diet significantly improved bone mineralization in quail and did not impact feed consumption, BW gain, or feed efficiency [18].
  • Parents were notified if their children needed an evaluation that included a family history and measurements of the blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, atherogenic index (ASI), triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [15].

Anatomical context of ARSI

  • Among the cells expressing kin-8::gfp, only ASI sensory neurons are known to express DAF-7 TGF-(beta), a key molecule preventing dauer larva formation [13].
  • The amount of calcium and phosphorus in the excreta decreased, while ash, mineral content, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in tibia increased in ASI-supplemented quail in both TN and HS groups during the late laying period [17].
  • The ASI stent should be reserved for strictures of the prostatic and posterior urethra [19].

Associations of ARSI with chemical compounds

  • In Arsi and Bale regions of Ethiopia we found an area in which vitamin A deficiency is hyperendemic and linked to monocrop grain farming [20].
  • Moreover, patients who increased their 12-step participation during the first 3 months of treatment had significantly less cocaine use and lower ASI Drug Use Composite scores in the subsequent 3 months [21].
  • Analyses (Kaplan Meier and Cox regression) included methadone dose and urinalysis results (for methadone, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, THC, amphetamines) of each patient in the first month and after 1 year in treatment (or during the last month if the stay was >3 months and <1 year) and patients' characteristics (modified ASI) [22].
  • Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; Arg = 49.47%, silicone = 8.2%, inositol = 25%) is a novel, bioavailable source of Si and Arg and one that offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health [18].
  • Serum osteocalcin, dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Creactive protein concentrations decreased, as dietary ASI supplementation increased in quail reared under HS [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARSI

  • ASI was initiated by the administration of three weekly intra-cutaneous vaccinations with 10(7) irradiated autologous tumor cells, starting four weeks after surgery [2].
  • The Y chromosome haplogroup distribution of elite Ethiopian athletes (n=62) was compared with that of the general Ethiopian population (n=95) and a control group from Arsi (a region producing a disproportionate number of athletes; n=85) [23].
  • The results suggest that the ASI employment and psychiatric subscales may be predictive of aftercare compliance [24].
  • Our studies on ASI formulations based on carbohydrate structures such as TF and STn have demonstrated their ability to induce immune response relevant to the native epitopes on the cancer cells in animal models and in cancer patients [25].
  • The design was a longitudinal prospective cohort study with pre-detoxification ASI and SCL-90 data and post-detoxification CIDI and SCL-90 data on a clinical sample of 116 substance abuse patients [26].


  1. Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in chronic pain patients: factors associated with increased risk. Smith, M.T., Edwards, R.R., Robinson, R.C., Dworkin, R.H. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Skin tests predict survival after autologous tumor cell vaccination in metastatic melanoma: experience in 81 patients. Baars, A., Claessen, A.M., van den Eertwegh, A.J., Gall, H.E., Stam, A.G., Meijer, S., Giaccone, G., Meijer, C.J., Scheper, R.J., Wagstaff, J., Vermorken, J.B., Pinedo, H.M. Ann. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of the ASI titanium stent in the management of bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kirby, R.S., Heard, S.R., Miller, P., Eardley, I., Holmes, S., Vale, J., Bryan, J., Liu, S. J. Urol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Correlates of benzodiazepine abuse in methadone maintenance treatment. A 1 year prospective study in an Israeli clinic. Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., Schmidt, V., Hayward, R., Bodner, G., Adelson, M. Addiction (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Nutritional assessment of two famine prone Ethiopian communities. Alemu, T., Lindtjørn, B. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Consistency of self-administered and interview-based Addiction Severity Index composite scores. Rosen, C.S., Henson, B.R., Finney, J.W., Moos, R.H. Addiction (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder in a substance misusing clinical population. Reynolds, M., Mezey, G., Chapman, M., Wheeler, M., Drummond, C., Baldacchino, A. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Differentiated risk behaviour for HIV and hepatitis among injecting drug users (IDUs). Nordén, L., Lidman, C. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of the development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, and panic disorder: a prospective study. Plehn, K., Peterson, R.A. Journal of anxiety disorders. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Personality disorders in opiate addicts show prognostic specificity. Kosten, T.A., Kosten, T.R., Rounsaville, B.J. Journal of substance abuse treatment. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Altered mRNA splicing of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in myotonic dystrophy type 1. Kimura, T., Nakamori, M., Lueck, J.D., Pouliquin, P., Aoike, F., Fujimura, H., Dirksen, R.T., Takahashi, M.P., Dulhunty, A.F., Sakoda, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Automated, multiplex assay for high-frequency microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Nash, G.M., Gimbel, M., Shia, J., Culliford, A.T., Nathanson, D.R., Ndubuisi, M., Yamaguchi, Y., Zeng, Z.S., Barany, F., Paty, P.B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Control of DAF-7 TGF-(alpha) expression and neuronal process development by a receptor tyrosine kinase KIN-8 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Koga, M., Take-uchi, M., Tameishi, T., Ohshima, Y. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Predictors of HIV-related risk behaviors among heterosexuals in alcoholism treatment. Woods, W.J., Avins, A.L., Lindan, C.P., Hudes, E.S., Boscarino, J.A., Clark, W.W. J. Stud. Alcohol (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. What are parents of obese children concerned about in their children? Yoshinaga, M., Yuasa, Y., Kitahara, T., Shimago, A., Miyata, K., Sameshima, K., Imamura, M., Arima, K., Matsuoka, K. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Active specific immunotherapy: PEM as a potential target molecule. Burchell, J., Graham, R., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. Cancer Surv. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex during the late laying period of quail at different environmental temperatures. Onderci, M., Sahin, N., Sahin, K., Balci, T.A., Gursu, M.F., Juturu, V., Kucuk, O. Br. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex improves bone mineralization in quail. Sahin, K., Onderci, M., Sahin, N., Balci, T.A., Gursu, M.F., Juturu, V., Kucuk, O. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The use of urethral stents for the treatment of urethral strictures. Yachia, D. Annales d'urologie. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Vitamin A deficiency in southern Ethiopia. De Sole, G., Belay, Y., Zegeye, B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of 12-step self-help group attendance and participation on drug use outcomes among cocaine-dependent patients. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L., Gallop, R.J., Najavits, L.M., Frank, A., Crits-Christoph, P., Thase, M.E., Blaine, J., Gastfriend, D.R., Daley, D., Luborsky, L. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Factors predicting retention in treatment: 10-year experience of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in Israel. Peles, E., Schreiber, S., Adelson, M. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners. Moran, C.N., Scott, R.A., Adams, S.M., Warrington, S.J., Jobling, M.A., Wilson, R.H., Goodwin, W.H., Georgiades, E., Wolde, B., Pitsiladis, Y.P. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Addiction severity, psychopathology and treatment compliance in cocaine-dependent mothers. Killeen, T.K., Brady, K.T., Thevos, A. Journal of addictive diseases : the official journal of the ASAM, American Society of Addiction Medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Development of active specific immunotherapeutic agents based on cancer-associated mucins. Samuel, J., Longenecker, B.M. Pharmaceutical biotechnology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Screening and diagnosis of anxiety and mood disorders in substance abuse patients. Franken, I.H., Hendriks, V.M. The American journal on addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions. (2001) [Pubmed]
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