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Gene Review

ROCK1  -  Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing...

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of ROCK1

  • Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock) [1].
  • Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes [2].
  • In general, severe morbidity or mortality following infection with S. enteritidis isolates of all phage types tested occurred more often in single-comb white leghorn chicks than in white Plymouth Rock chicks [3].
  • The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was calculated to be 1.91 and 1.62 Cal./g. 2/3, and that for weight gain was 2.05 and 2.19 Cal./g. for male White Rock and female 2--8-week old Leghorn chicks, respectively [4].
  • To determine the association between specific structural changes in the hemagglutinin gene and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), groups of 4-week-old White Plymouth Rock chickens were inoculated intravenously or intranasally with AIVs of varying pathogenicities isolated from chickens in central Mexico during 1994-1995 [5].

High impact information on ROCK1

  • Stage-X blastoderms, within intact eggs from White Leghorn hens, were exposed to 500-700 rads of gamma radiation from a 60Co source prior to injection, into the subgerminal cavity, of approximately 100 or 200-400 dispersed cells from stage-X blastoderms isolated from eggs laid by Barred Plymouth Rock hens [6].
  • The male somatic chimera was mated to several Barred Plymouth Rock hens to determine the extent to which donor cells had been incorporated into his testes [7].
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that ROCK1 protein was distributed in migrating mesendoderm cells, visceral mesoderm of the pericardial coelom (from which cardiomyocytes will later develop), and cardiomyocytes of the primitive heart tube [8].
  • In this study, two methods were developed that produced blastodermal cells isolated from stage X Barred Plymouth Rock embryos bearing an integrated transgene [9].
  • Broiler (meat-type) chickens were derived from other breeds, including Cornish and Plymouth Rock. It was our hypothesis that new B haplotypes, not previously identified in White Leghorns, might be present in lines of broiler chickens [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of ROCK1

  • Feed intake of adult White Plymouth Rock male chickens from lines selected for high (HW) and low (LW) juvenile body weight was examined as a function of dietary self selection, glucose solutions in lieu of water, and environmental temperature [11].

Biological context of ROCK1

  • Here, we investigated spatiotemporal expression patterns of ROCK1 protein and examined the role of ROCK during initial heart myofibrillogenesis in cultured chick blastoderm [8].
  • One or two-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) White Rock chickens, free of maternal AI antibodies, responded with variable serum HI titers, but in some cases the titers were comparable to those achieved using whole virus preparations [12].
  • All of the 3117 offspring exhibited the typical Barred Plymouth Rock phenotype; no Barred Plymouth Rock x Dwarf White Leghorn chicks were obtained [13].
  • A genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting body weight in chickens was conducted on 238 F(2) chickens from a reciprocal cross of Silky Fowl and White Plymouth Rock using 125 microsatellite markers covering 23 autosomes and the Z chromosome [14].
  • The current study evaluated influence of genotypes of the B and C alloantigen systems on production traits in lines of White Plymouth Rock chickens [15].

Anatomical context of ROCK1

  • Germline chimeric chickens were produced by transfer of primordial germ cells from White Leghorn to Barred Plymouth Rock, and vice versa [16].
  • Semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters was cryopreserved with glycerol concentrations of 13 and 16% in a microprocessor-controlled freezer [17].
  • The morphometric goal is to estimate the surface area due to microvilli at the epithelial cell apex and the proposed scheme is illustrated using material from three White Plymouth Rock hens [18].
  • Chicken thrombocytes (98% pure) were prepared from adult Barred Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red males [19].
  • Differing levels of progesterone (0, .5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg) were dissolved in propylene glycol and injected at 4 days of incubation into the yolk sac of eggs from Barred Plymouth Rock females mated to New Hampshire males [20].

Associations of ROCK1 with chemical compounds

  • Diurnal variations in circulating concentrations of LH, GH, prolactin, corticosterone, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were followed in laying and broody White Rock domestic fowl [21].
  • 1. Two lines of broilers exhibiting low (LG) or high (HG) plasma glucose concentrations were selected from a pure line of White Rock chickens [22].
  • 1. Alkaline phosphatase [EC], acid phosphatase [EC], aspartate aminotransferase [ASAT, EC] and alanine aminotransferase [ALAT, EC] were measured in mucosal homogenates of different segments of the alimentary tract of White Rock cockerels [23].
  • Laying hens (total 300 birds, 72 wk old) from six strains (Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Light Sussex, Brown Leghorn, and White Leghorn) were distributed in 12 floor pens (2 pens per strain, 25 birds per pen) with male roosters [24].
  • White Plymouth Rock chickens placed under 60% feed restriction or ad libitum feeding, with or without metyrapone (adrenal blocking agent) treatment, from 4 to 6 days of age were subjected to either 8 or 24 hr feed deprivation at 36 days of age [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ROCK1

  • Immunohistochemistry showed that, during chick cardiogenesis, ROCK1 and -2 were expressed in the transforming and migrating endothelial/mesenchymal cells in the outflow tract (OT) and atrioventricular (AV) canal regions from which valvuloseptal endocardial cushion tissue would later develop [26].
  • By county, Queens had the most seropositive birds for WN virus (50%); species with the greatest seropositivity for WN virus (sample sizes were at least six) were Domestic Goose, Domestic Chicken, House Sparrow, Canada Goose, and Rock Dove [27].
  • Primordial germ cells collected from the blood of embryos at stage 13-15 of White Leghorn and Barred Plymouth Rock breeds were concentrated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation [28].
  • Genetic distances estimated from DNA fingerprints in crosses of white Plymouth Rock chickens [29].
  • The effects of intramuscular injections of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or short-term exposures to high environmental temperature (44 to 46 C) were determined on the relative amounts of lipoproteins in the serum of 6 to 7-week-old White Rock chickens [30].


  1. Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers. Moghadam, H.K., McMillan, I., Chambers, J.R., Julian, R.J., Tranchant, C.C. Br. Poult. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. Brown, C., King, D.J., Seal, B.S. Vet. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The comparative virulence for chicks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 isolates and isolates of phage types commonly found in poultry in the United States. Gast, R.K., Benson, S.T. Avian Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. New formal approaches to the determination of energy and amino acid requirements of chicks. Hurwitz, S., Sklan, D., Bartov, I. Poult. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Pathobiology of H5N2 Mexican avian influenza virus infections of chickens. Swayne, D.E. Vet. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Germline chimeric chickens from dispersed donor blastodermal cells and compromised recipient embryos. Carsience, R.S., Clark, M.E., Verrinder Gibbins, A.M., Etches, R.J. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Production of somatic and germline chimeras in the chicken by transfer of early blastodermal cells. Petitte, J.N., Clark, M.E., Liu, G., Verrinder Gibbins, A.M., Etches, R.J. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 affects initial heart myofibrillogenesis in cultured chick blastoderm. Sakata, H., Sakabe, M., Matsui, H., Kawada, N., Nakatani, K., Ikeda, K., Yamagishi, T., Nakajima, Y. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Progress toward the culture and transformation of chicken blastodermal cells. Wang, Y., Brooks, C.F., Jones, S.A., Olliff, L.K., Morgan, M., Speksnijder, G.L., Foley, C., Harvey, A.J. Stem Cells (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The MHC of a broiler chicken line: serology, B-G genotypes, and B-F/B-LB sequences. Li, L., Johnson, L.W., Livant, E.J., Ewald, S.J. Immunogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Responses to dietary self selection and calories in liquid form by weight selected lines of chickens. Brody, T.B., Cherry, J.A., Siegel, P.B. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccines protect against lethal influenza infections by avian H5 and H7 subtypes. Crawford, J., Wilkinson, B., Vosnesensky, A., Smith, G., Garcia, M., Stone, H., Perdue, M.L. Vaccine (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Assessment of functional gametes in chickens after transfer of primordial germ cells. Petitte, J.N., Clark, M.E., Etches, R.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci associated with body weight at different developmental stages in chickens. Gao, Y., Hu, X.X., Du, Z.Q., Deng, X.M., Huang, Y.H., Fei, J., Feng, J.D., Liu, Z.L., Da, Y., Li, N. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Selection for body weight at eight weeks of age. 20. Production traits and the B and C alloantigen systems. Boa-Amponsem, K., Briles, W.E., Briles, R.W., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. Poult. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Production of germline chimeric chickens, with high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes, produced by transfer of primordial germ cells. Naito, M., Tajima, A., Yasuda, Y., Kuwana, T. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Cryopreservation of rooster semen in thirteen and sixteen percent glycerol. Gill, S.P., Buss, E.G., Mallis, R.J. Poult. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A sampling scheme intended for tandem measurements of sodium transport and microvillous surface area in the coprodaeal epithelium of hens on high- and low-salt diets. Mayhew, T.M., Dantzer, V., Elbrønd, V.S., Skadhauge, E. J. Anat. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of in vitro heat stress on the uptake of neutral red by chicken thrombocytes. Roland, G.A., Birrenkott, G.P. Poult. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of progesterone on developing chick embryos. Renden, J.A., Benoff, F.H. Poult. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Concentrations of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in serum of laying and broody white rock hens (Gallus domesticus). Bedrak, E., Harvey, S., Chadwick, A. J. Endocrinol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of selection for high and low plasma glucose concentration in chickens. Leclercq, B., Simon, J., Ricard, F.H. Br. Poult. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase in different regions of the alimentary tract of adult White Rock cockerels. Majumdar, S., Panda, J.N., Singh, B.P. Br. Poult. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and strain of hen on the fatty acid composition, storage stability, and flavor characteristics of chicken eggs. Ahn, D.U., Sunwoo, H.H., Wolfe, F.H., Sim, J.S. Poult. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, neonatal feed restriction, and pituitary-adrenal axis response to subsequent fasting in chickens. Zulkifli, I., Siegel, H.S., Mashaly, M.M., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Rho kinases regulate endothelial invasion and migration during valvuloseptal endocardial cushion tissue formation. Sakabe, M., Ikeda, K., Nakatani, K., Kawada, N., Imanaka-Yoshida, K., Yoshida, T., Yamagishi, T., Nakajima, Y. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Komar, N., Panella, N.A., Burns, J.E., Dusza, S.W., Mascarenhas, T.M., Talbot, T.O. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Preservation of chick primordial germ cells in liquid nitrogen and subsequent production of viable offspring. Naito, M., Tajima, A., Tagami, T., Yasuda, Y., Kuwana, T. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Genetic distances estimated from DNA fingerprints in crosses of white Plymouth Rock chickens. Haberfeld, A., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. Anim. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Serum lipoproteins in chickens after administration of adrenocorticotropin or exposure to high temperature. Gould, N.R., Siegel, H.S. Poult. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
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