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Gene Review

ROCK1  -  Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: P160ROCK, ROCK-I, Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-35, Rho-associated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1, ...
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Disease relevance of ROCK1


Psychiatry related information on ROCK1


High impact information on ROCK1

  • Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho-associated kinase p160ROCK, diminished polyglutamine protein aggregation (EC(50) congruent with 5 microM) and reduced neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of polyglutamine disease [7].
  • We demonstrate that macrophage adherence promotes rapid changes in physiological functions that depend on translational upregulation of preformed ROCK-1 mRNA, but not ROCK-2 mRNA [8].
  • Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin abolished ROCK-1 synthesis in macrophages resulting in an inhibition of chemotaxis and phagocytosis [8].
  • In addition, there was a rapamycin/sirolimus-sensitive enhanced loading of ribosomes on preformed ROCK-1 mRNAs [8].
  • Phosphoinositides and the Rho/p160 ROCK pathway, which participate in the activation of ERM proteins, were involved in the generation and maintenance of the anchoring structure [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of ROCK1


Biological context of ROCK1


Anatomical context of ROCK1

  • Here we show that endogenous SOX9 mRNA can be rapidly up-regulated in subcultured human articular chondrocytes if grown in alginate, in monolayer with cytochalasin D, or with specific inhibition of the RhoA effector kinases ROCK1 and -2, which all prevent actin stress fiber formation [16].
  • CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPP(alpha) from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1 [12].
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that the expression and activity of ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be uncoupled in a signal-dependent manner, and further implicate a new function for ROCK2 in the steroid control of tight junction dynamics [17].
  • Thus, p160ROCK is required for centrosome positioning and centrosome-dependent exit from mitosis [15].
  • Similarly, ROCK-1-null mice (Rock-1(-/-)) showed a marked reduction in myocyte apoptosis associated with pressure overload [3].

Associations of ROCK1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ROCK1


Regulatory relationships of ROCK1

  • Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPP(alpha) shedding [12].
  • We conclude that cell-cell contact is required for BeWo trophoblast to exhibit plasmalemmal caveolin-1; BeWo cells at confluence offer a useful model for the study of trophoblast raft behaviour during syncytialisation and for the exploration of the potential Rock-1-regulating role of caveolin-1 in this process [22].

Other interactions of ROCK1

  • That this is of importance is supported by the findings that an increased Rho-kinase/ROCK activity in SW13 cells, obtained by overexpressing wild-type ROCK1 and ROCK2, induces stress-fibre formation [23].
  • Our results suggest that the BRG1 protein affects the RhoA pathway by increasing the protein level of ROCK1, which allows stress-fibre-like structures to form [23].
  • In this chapter, we will discuss the role of these Rho family GTPases and their effectors, in particular the Ser/Thr kinases PAK1 and Rock, in RAS-induced serum/anchorage-independent cell cycling, and discuss several potential therapeutics, peptides or chemical compounds, that could block this oncogenic cell cycle signalling pathway [24].
  • It includes the MAP kinase cascade, the Ca/calmodulin system, several heterotrimeric G proteins (Galpha12, Galpha13, Galphaq, and Galphai), small G proteins (ras, cdc42, rhoA), and downstream kinases (e.g., p160ROCK) [25].
  • Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK-1, blocked LDL-induced stress fiber formation, eNOS translocation and NO production [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ROCK1

  • However, with the recent development of ROCK1- and ROCK2-knockout mice, further dissection of ROCK signaling pathways is now possible [27].
  • RESULTS: The expression of ROCK-1 was found in 18 of 21 PC tissues (85.7%), but not in normal pancreatic tissues by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry [4].
  • Western blot analysis revealed the expression of ROCK-1 and ROCK-II isoforms in aorta segments from both groups [28].
  • In total, the highest number of errors occurred at the North Little Rock Ambulatory Care Pharmacy (39 errors) and the Little Rock Ambulatory Care Pharmacy (24 errors) [29].
  • Age-adjusted seroprevalence rates at titers of at least 64 varied from 21.9% in Little Rock, Ark, to 3.5% in Louisville, Ky [30].


  1. Identification of genes responsible for cell migration by a library of randomized ribozymes. Suyama, E., Kawasaki, H., Kasaoka, T., Taira, K. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B p105/p50 in Human Melanoma and Its Role in Cell Migration. Gao, K., Dai, D.L., Martinka, M., Li, G. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) by caspase-3 cleavage plays an essential role in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Chang, J., Xie, M., Shah, V.R., Schneider, M.D., Entman, M.L., Wei, L., Schwartz, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of ROCK-1 in human pancreatic cancer: its down-regulation by morpholino oligo antisense can reduce the migration of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Kaneko, K., Satoh, K., Masamune, A., Satoh, A., Shimosegawa, T. Pancreas (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lower amyloidogenic Abeta42 by inhibiting Rho. Zhou, Y., Su, Y., Li, B., Liu, F., Ryder, J.W., Wu, X., Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P.A., Gelfanova, V., Hale, J.E., May, P.C., Paul, S.M., Ni, B. Science (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Pharmacy teaching for family practice residents. Kahn, R.F., Spadaro, D.C., Price, R.D. Family medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. A rapid cellular FRET assay of polyglutamine aggregation identifies a novel inhibitor. Pollitt, S.K., Pallos, J., Shao, J., Desai, U.A., Ma, A.A., Thompson, L.M., Marsh, J.L., Diamond, M.I. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. PSGL-1 and mTOR regulate translation of ROCK-1 and physiological functions of macrophages. Fox, R., Nhan, T.Q., Law, G.L., Morris, D.R., Liles, W.C., Schwartz, S.M. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Dynamic interaction of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 with moesin and ezrin in a novel endothelial docking structure for adherent leukocytes. Barreiro, O., Yanez-Mo, M., Serrador, J.M., Montoya, M.C., Vicente-Manzanares, M., Tejedor, R., Furthmayr, H., Sanchez-Madrid, F. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of intrahepatic metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma by Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Takamura, M., Sakamoto, M., Genda, T., Ichida, T., Asakura, H., Hirohashi, S. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Exercise-associated hyponatremia in marathon runners: a two-year experience. Davis, D.P., Videen, J.S., Marino, A., Vilke, G.M., Dunford, J.V., Van Camp, S.P., Maharam, L.G. The Journal of emergency medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK. Pedrini, S., Carter, T.L., Prendergast, G., Petanceska, S., Ehrlich, M.E., Gandy, S. PLoS Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Cell adhesion status-dependent histone acetylation is regulated through intracellular contractility-related signaling activities. Kim, Y.B., Yu, J., Lee, S.Y., Lee, M.S., Ko, S.G., Ye, S.K., Jong, H.S., Kim, T.Y., Bang, Y.J., Lee, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Segmental duplication associated with the human-specific inversion of chromosome 18: a further example of the impact of segmental duplications on karyotype and genome evolution in primates. Goidts, V., Szamalek, J.M., Hameister, H., Kehrer-Sawatzki, H. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The Rho-associated protein kinase p160ROCK is required for centrosome positioning. Chevrier, V., Piel, M., Collomb, N., Saoudi, Y., Frank, R., Paintrand, M., Narumiya, S., Bornens, M., Job, D. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of SOX9 mRNA in Human Articular Chondrocytes Involving p38 MAPK Activation and mRNA Stabilization. Tew, S.R., Hardingham, T.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective glucocorticoid control of Rho kinase isoforms regulate cell-cell interactions. Rubenstein, N.M., Callahan, J.A., Lo, D.H., Firestone, G.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. RhoA is required for monocyte tail retraction during transendothelial migration. Worthylake, R.A., Lemoine, S., Watson, J.M., Burridge, K. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Polyamines regulate Rho-kinase and myosin phosphorylation during intestinal epithelial restitution. Rao, J.N., Guo, X., Liu, L., Zou, T., Murthy, K.S., Yuan, J.X., Wang, J.Y. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. A role for small GTPase RhoA in regulating intracellular membrane traffic of lysosomes in invasive rat hepatoma cells. Nishimura, Y., Itoh, K., Yoshioka, K., Ikeda, K., Himeno, M. Histochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The small GTPase Rho: cellular functions and signal transduction. Narumiya, S. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Caveolin-1 and Lipid Rafts in Confluent BeWo Trophoblasts: Evidence for Rock-1 Association with Caveolin-1. Rashid-Doubell, F., Tannetta, D., Redman, C.W., Sargent, I.L., Boyd, C.A., Linton, E.A. Placenta (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of BRG1, a human SWI/SNF component, affects the organisation of actin filaments through the RhoA signalling pathway. Asp, P., Wihlborg, M., Karlén, M., Farrants, A.K. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Rho family-associated kinases PAK1 and rock. Maruta, H., Nheu, T.V., He, H., Hirokawa, Y. Progress in cell cycle research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Sodium-hydrogen exchange and platelet function. Rosskopf, D. J. Thromb. Thrombolysis (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Low density lipoprotein induces eNOS translocation to membrane caveolae: the role of RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Zhu, Y., Liao, H.L., Niu, X.L., Yuan, Y., Lin, T., Verna, L., Stemerman, M.B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Physiological role of ROCKs in the cardiovascular system. Noma, K., Oyama, N., Liao, J.K. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Pregnancy-induced modulation of calcium mobilization and down-regulation of Rho-kinase expression contribute to attenuated vasopressin-induced contraction of the rat aorta. Katoue, M.G., Khan, I., Oriowo, M.A. Vascul. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Occurrence of dispensing errors and efforts to reduce medication errors at the Central Arkansas Veteran's Healthcare System. Rolland, P. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Antibodies reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii among children living in the southeast and south central regions of the United States. Marshall, G.S., Stout, G.G., Jacobs, R.F., Schutze, G.E., Paxton, H., Buckingham, S.C., DeVincenzo, J.P., Jackson, M.A., San Joaquin, V.H., Standaert, S.M., Woods, C.R. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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