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Gene Review

VIP  -  vasoactive intestinal peptide

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of VIP


High impact information on VIP


Chemical compound and disease context of VIP

  • Pancreatic ganglion cells were only immunoreactive with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin and substance P (SP) antisera [10].
  • These observations suggest that VIP containing nerves in the chicken pancreas have an intrinsic origin, are probably derived from VIP immunoreactive, intrapancreatic ganglion cells and innervate secretory ducts, arteries, acinar cells and B-islets, and that VIP must coexist with acetylcholine in the nervous elements [11].

Biological context of VIP

  • Three VIP cDNAs isolated from a chicken hypothalamic cDNA library were derived from the shorter mRNA [12].
  • The neuropeptide VIP modulates the neurotransmitter phenotype of cultured chick sympathetic neurons [8].
  • Herein we examined the effects of VIP and its potential mechanisms of action on apoptosis in antral follicles isolated from ovaries of gonadotropin-primed immature rats and incubated in vitro under serum-free conditions [13].
  • Provision of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (10 microM), mimicked the inhibitory effect of VIP on apoptosis and concomitantly increased intrafollicular cAMP accumulation, suggesting a role for the cAMP pathway in mediating the immediate actions of VIP on follicular cell survival [13].
  • In addition, a VIP binding-site study was completed that focused on the lateral septal organ (LSO), a circumventricular organ of potential significance in avian species [14].

Anatomical context of VIP

  • In support of this, stimulation of the turkey pituitary gland with VIP on ED24 resulted in a 4- and 3-fold increase in PRL and PRLR, respectively [15].
  • In situ hybridisation with an oligonucleotide probe from the VIP cDNA sequence showed that VIP-encoding mRNA occurs in cells in the basal hypothalamus, an area of the brain known to contain VIP neurosecretory neurones [12].
  • RT-PCR of total RNA from liver, kidney, gut, pancreas, pituitary, cerebellum, forebrain and hypothalamus, using primers derived from the VIP cDNA sequence, showed that the shorter form of VIP mRNA is present in all of these tissues [12].
  • Trigeminal ganglia explanted with embryonic heart or trigeminal ganglia explanted alone lacked small VIP-IR cells but contained large VIP-negative neurons [16].
  • However, both were present in sympathetic ganglia: SOM from embryonic Day 4.5 and VIP from embryonic Day 10 [17].

Associations of VIP with chemical compounds

  • The shorter form of chicken VIP mRNA encodes a protein that does not contain an analogue of rat peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) 1-27 or human peptide histidine methionine 1-27 [12].
  • In the presence of the PDE inhibitor IBMX (0.1 mM), PACAP (0.1 microM) and VIP (1 microM) strongly stimulated cAMP synthesis in C6 cells in early passages, but not in C6 cells in late passages [1].
  • A 1.9- to 2.6-fold stimulation in secretion of molecules with MW greater than 10 kDa precipitable by 10% trichloroacetic acid was observed after treatment with 1 microM VIP for 15 min [9].
  • The effect of 1 microM VIP was mimicked by 10 microM dibutyryl cyclic AMP and attenuated by dopamine (1 x 10(-4) M), while colchicine, beta-lumicolchicine, and monensin, all at 1 microM, had no effect [9].
  • 2. Forskolin (10 microM) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 3 microM) increased cellular levels of cyclic AMP 8- and 3-fold, respectively, either in the absence or presence of electrical stimulation [18].

Physical interactions of VIP

  • Here we confirm that the VIP binding sites of chicken liver membranes consisted mainly in bivalent VIP/PACAP receptors and that about 50% of the 125I-VIP binding capacity was not affected by the GTP analogue GppNHp [19].

Regulatory relationships of VIP


Other interactions of VIP

  • The infusion of chicken secretin reduced the flow of juice in response to infusions of chicken VIP, but the differences were not significant [21].
  • The cultured Müller cell may thus be a useful model for examining VIP and glucagon effects on glial elements of the CNS [22].
  • Galanin-, VIP-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers were inconspicuous during embryonic life [23].
  • The developmental expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the neuropeptide VIP in chick sympathetic neurons: evidence for different regulatory events in cholinergic differentiation [24].
  • In the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, the rank-order of both PACAP forms and VIP in evoking the cyclic AMP response was: PACAP38 approximately PACAP27>>VIP, suggesting the presence in the tested tissues of PAC1 receptors [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VIP


  1. Cyclic AMP formation in C6 glioma cells: effect of PACAP and VIP in early and late passages. Sokolowska, P., Nowak, J.Z. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. VIP-, galanin-, and neuropeptide-Y-immunoreactive fibers in the chicken carotid bodies after various types of denervation. Kameda, Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on development of form deprivation myopia in the chick: a pharmacological and immunocytochemical study. Seltner, R.L., Stell, W.K. Vision Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibitory effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on food intake in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Matsuda, K., Maruyama, K., Nakamachi, T., Miura, T., Uchiyama, M., Shioda, S. Peptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Peripheral expression and biological activities of GDNF, a new neurotrophic factor for avian and mammalian peripheral neurons. Trupp, M., Rydén, M., Jörnvall, H., Funakoshi, H., Timmusk, T., Arenas, E., Ibáñez, C.F. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Cholinergic neuronal differentiation factors: evidence for the presence of both CNTF-like and non-CNTF-like factors in developing rat footpad. Rohrer, H. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Glucagon-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in primary cultures of chick hepatocytes. Evidence for multiple pathways. Premont, R.T., Iyengar, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. The neuropeptide VIP modulates the neurotransmitter phenotype of cultured chick sympathetic neurons. Beretta, C., Zurn, A.D. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. VIP stimulation of polarized macromolecule secretion in cultured chick embryonic retinal pigment epithelium. Koh, S.W. Exp. Cell Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunohistochemical studies on the intrinsic pancreatic nerves in the chicken. Salakij, C., Watanabe, T., Takahashi, S., Ohmori, Y., Nagatsu, I. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) containing nerve fibers in the chicken pancreas. Hiramatsu, K., Watanabe, T. Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for alternative splicing of the chicken vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene transcript. Talbot, R.T., Dunn, I.C., Wilson, P.W., Sang, H.M., Sharp, P.J. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-mediated suppression of apoptosis in the ovary: potential mechanisms of action and evidence of a conserved antiatretogenic role through evolution. Flaws, J.A., DeSanti, A., Tilly, K.I., Javid, R.O., Kugu, K., Johnson, A.L., Hirshfield, A.N., Tilly, J.L. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Sites of gene expression for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide throughout the brain of the chick (Gallus domesticus). Kuenzel, W.J., Mccune, S.K., Talbot, R.T., Sharp, P.J., Hill, J.M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Development of a real-time (Q) PCR assay to measure variation in expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland during late embryogenesis in turkeys and chickens. Leclerc, B., Zadworny, D., B??d??carrats, G., Kuhnlein, U. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Trigeminal ganglion cells cocultured with gut express vasoactive intestinal peptide. Davis, J.P., Epstein, M.L. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Distribution and ontogeny of SP, CGRP, SOM, and VIP in chick sensory and sympathetic ganglia. New, H.V., Mudge, A.W. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Dissociation between intracellular Ca2+ and modulation of [3H]noradrenaline release in chick sympathetic neurons. Przywara, D.A., Bhave, S.V., Bhave, A., Wakade, T.D., Wakade, A.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. The polypeptide PHI discriminates a GTP-insensitive form of VIP receptor in liver membranes. Pineau, N., Lelievre, V., Goursaud, S., Hilairet, S., Waschek, J.A., Janet, T., Muller, J.M. Neuropeptides (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is a physiological prolactin-releasing factor in the bantam hen. Macnamee, M.C., Sharp, P.J., Lea, R.W., Sterling, R.J., Harvey, S. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Potent stimulation of the avian exocrine pancreas by porcine and chicken vasoactive intestinal peptide. Dimaline, R., Dockray, G.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Interaction of neuropeptides and cultured glial (Müller) cells of the chick retina: elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by vasoactive intestinal peptide and glucagon. Koh, S.W., Kyritsis, A., Chader, G.J. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunocytochemical localization and development of multiple kinds of neuropeptides and neuroendocrine proteins in the chick ultimobranchial gland. Kameda, Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. The developmental expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the neuropeptide VIP in chick sympathetic neurons: evidence for different regulatory events in cholinergic differentiation. Ernsberger, U., Patzke, H., Rohrer, H. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. PACAP-induced formation of cyclic AMP in the chicken brain: regional variations and the effect of melatonin. Nowak, J.Z., Kuba, K., Zawilska, J.B. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Pituitary prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid levels in incubating and laying hens: effects of manipulating plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Talbot, R.T., Hanks, M.C., Sterling, R.J., Sang, H.M., Sharp, P.J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Distribution of substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the chicken spinal cord, with notes on their postnatal development. Du, F., Dubois, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Distribution and development of VIP immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord of the embryonic and newly hatched chick. Du, F., Chayvialle, J.A., Dubois, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. A vasoactive intestinal peptide binding component in hen granulosa cells. Kawashima, M., Takahashi, T., Yasuoka, T., Kamiyoshi, M., Tanaka, K. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
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